couples. But at least the ability easily to limit one's family has not, as Malthus feared, reduced individuals to indolence or society to stagnation. On the contrary, it has been one of the ways through which new incentives and aspirations have been able to work with effect. Whatever the validity of the Malthusian theory, Malthus's precepts of conduct have lost their relevance as a means of preventing a conflict between population and resources.
REFERENCES
1. London, 1761, Prospect IV, pp. 109-25.
2. Note the change in title. That of the first edition was: An Essay on the Principle of Population, as it Affects the Future Improvement of Society, with Remarks on the Speculations of Mr. Godwin, M. Condorcet, and other Writers. In the second edition it had become: An Essay on the Principle of Population; or, a View of its Past and Present Effects on Human Happiness; with an Inquiry into our Prospects Respecting the Future Removal or Mitigation of the Evils which it Occasions.
3. Essay, 2nd ed., London, 1803, pp. 483-93.
4. Essay, 5th ed., London, 1817, Vol. 3, pp. 363-4.
5. Ibid., 1st ed., pp. 154 and 340.
6. Ibid., 5th ed., Vol. 3, p. 393. It is not, however, clear to what particular practices Malthus referred, or whether all practices would have been equally "immoral." See Appendix A to N. E. Himes edition of Francis Place, Illustrations and Proofs of the Principle of Population, London, 1930.
7. On the usefulness of temporary emigration from Great Britain see Essay, 5th ed., Vol. 2, pp. 302-5, which also comments on the inadequacy of this measure as a long-run remedy.
8. See J. B. F. Marbeau, Des Crèches, ou Moyen de Diminuer la Misère en Augmentant la Population, 2nd ed., Paris, 1845, p. 23. It should be emphasized, however, that Malthus explicitly encouraged the reduction of mortality. Indeed, he asserted that the "best criterion of happiness and good government" was the "smallness of the proportion dying under the age of puberty" ( Essay, 3rd ed., London, 1806, Vol. 2, pp. 513-14, and repeated in subsequent editions).
9. The reference here is to the differences in mean age at marriage between the "working classes" and the "middle classes." This difference still obtains, in spite of the fact that in some countries, at least -- for example, in Great Britain -- age at marriage has fallen in both classes in recent years.
10. See R. N. Salaman, The History and Social Influence of the Potato, Cambridge, 1949, chs. 15, 16, and 18.
11. On the famine years and the toll in mortality, see G. O'Brien, The Economic History of Ireland from the Union to the Famine, London, 1921, ch. 7.
12. K. H. Connell, The Population of Ireland, 1750-1845, Oxford, 1950, pp. 27-8, based partly upon W. F. Adams, Ireland and Irish Emigration to the New World, New Haven, 1932, Appendix.

-50-

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