Al-Biruni, Abu Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad
Abu Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad Al-Biruni (äbōō´ rīhän´ məhăm´Ĭd Ĭb´ən ä´məd ăl-bērōō´nē, ăl bĕrōō´nē), b. 973, d. after 1050, Central Asian scientist. His earlier years were disturbed by political troubles, but after 1017 he was patronized by members of the Ghaznavid dynasty of Turkey. He traveled in Afghanistan and India, making astronomical and geographic observations. The largest part of his writings are on astronomy, astrology, and applied mathematics, but he also wrote on pharmacology, geography, philosophy, history, and other subjects. A taste for precise observation is shown in his determinations of latitudes and the densities of gemstones. His encyclopedic India (tr. 1888) and Chronology (tr. 1879) provide invaluable information about his time.
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Publication information: Article title: Al-Biruni, Abu Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad. Encyclopedia title: The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. © 2012 The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia © 2012, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. Used with the permission of Columbia University Press. All Rights Reserved. Publisher: The Columbia University Press. Place of publication: Not available. Publication year: 2013.
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