Jacksonville

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.

Jacksonville

Jacksonville:1 City (1990 pop. 29,101), Pulaski co., central Ark., inc. 1941. The city has varied industries, including printing and publishing and the manufacture of electronic equipment, ordnance, and plastic and metal products. The Little Rock Air Force Base, primarily an airlift-training installation and located in Jacksonville, and defense-related industries are also economically important.

2 City (1990 pop. 635,230), consolidated (since 1968) with Duval co., NE Fla., on the St. Johns River near its mouth on the Atlantic Ocean; inc. 1832. The largest city in the state, it is one of the most important Southern centers of commerce, finance, and insurance on the Atlantic coast. Jacksonville is a rail, air, and highway focal point and a busy port of entry, with an international airport and ship repair yards and extensive freight-handling facilities. Lumber, phosphate, paper, and wood pulp are the principal exports; automobiles and coffee are among imports. The city also has a large and diverse manufacturing base. Jacksonville is a major East Coast center of U.S. navy operations; three important naval installations are in the area, including Jacksonville Naval Air station and the large Mayport base at the mouth of the St. Johns River.

Jacksonville has a significant retired community and is also a tourist resort, with ocean beaches, fishing and yachting facilities, and inland hunting areas. Educational facilities include Jacksonville Univ., the Univ. of North Florida, Edward Walters College, and Jones College. The city has a symphony orchestra, a jazz festival, a zoo, and museums and art galleries, and is the home of the National Football League's Jaguars and the Gator Bowl. Points of interest include the World Golf Hall of Fame, the Confederate monument in Hemming Park, and nearby Fort Caroline National Memorial (see National Parks and Monuments, table).

Settled in 1816 and named for Andrew Jackson, the first territorial governor of Florida, the city was laid out in 1822. The Seminole War and the Civil War (in which much of the city was destroyed) interrupted its growth, but with the development of a deepwater harbor and railroads in the late 19th cent., industry and commerce increased. A fire in 1901 destroyed a large part of the city; it was quickly rebuilt.

3 City (1990 pop. 19,324), seat of Morgan co., W central Ill.; laid out 1825, inc. 1867. Its industries include bookbinding and the manufacture of plastics and metal products. It is the seat of Illinois College and MacMurray College. Stephen A. Douglas and William Jennings Bryan lived there. Jacksonville was a station on the Underground Railroad.

4 City (1990 pop. 30,013), seat of Onslow co., E N.C., on the New River; settled c.1757. It is a trade center in a farm area, and produces foods and machinery. It is also a summer resort. Camp Lejeune, a U.S. marine corps training base, is adjacent to the city, and New River, a marine air station, is to the south; both installations play a major role in Jacksonville's economy. A state park is nearby.

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