Mennonites

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.
Save to active project

Mennonites

Mennonites (mĕn´nənīts), descendants of the Dutch and Swiss evangelical Anabaptists of the 16th cent.

Beliefs and Membership

While each congregation is at liberty to decide independently on its form of worship and other matters, Mennonites generally agree on certain points—baptism of believers only, the necessity of repentence and conversion for salvation, the refusal to bear arms and to take oaths, the rejection of worldly concerns, simplicity of dress and habits, and disapproval of marrying outside the faith. In celebrating the Lord's Supper, some branches include the rite of foot washing and the kiss of charity.

Differences in discipline and performance of church services have resulted in a division of the church into a number of branches. The Mennonite Church, whose members are sometimes known as Old Mennonites, is the original body in the United States and has the largest membership. The General Conference of the Mennonite Church of North America (1860), the next largest body, may be listed among the more liberal branches. One of the most conservative divisions is the Amish Church, which, under the leadership of Jacob Amman (late 17th cent.), broke away from the main body in Europe. The Amish are noted for their rejection of the world and most modern technology and conveniences, and have historically farmed in a traditional manner or earned a livelihood by practicing such crafts as carpentry and cabinetry. The principal Amish groups in the United States are the Old Order Amish, who do not use churches but worship in homes and conduct their services in German, and the Conservative Amish, who abide by the Dordrecht Confession of Faith but hold services in English as well as German and accept such innovations as the Sunday school. The terms "House Amish" and "Church Amish" have been used to distinguish the branches. The Amish in the United States are predominantly in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Indiana, but Amish communities are found in more than half the states. Another conservative body is the Reformed or Herrite branch, established (1812) under the leadership of John Herr. The Church of God in Christ (1859) and the Old Order Mennonites, formed in 1870 under Jacob Wisler, are among the other branches.

Large numbers of Mennonites are found in Canada, and a number of American, Canadian, and European Mennonites have moved to colonies in Mexico and South America. Although attempts at unification have not been particularly successful, the Mennonite Central Committee, formed in 1920 as a response to famine affecting Mennonites in Russia and Ukraine, has enabled the branches to cooperate in many service and relief activities around the world. There are now over 1 million baptized members worldwide. The largest denomination in the United States is the Mennnonite Church USA.

History

The name Mennonite is derived from Menno Simons (c.1496–1561), Dutch reformer and organizer of the early congregations. Menno left the Catholic priesthood in 1536 to help gather together and rehabilitate the Dutch Anabaptists confused by the downfall of the revolutionary Anabaptist theocracy set up at Münster (c.1524–25). He soon became the movement's outstanding leader. The new movement restored the earlier evangelical form of Anabaptism practiced by the pacifistic Swiss Brethren (see Anabaptists).

Persecutions drove many of the Mennonites to Germany, where new congregations were formed. The movement spread also to France, Russia, and the Netherlands, where it became influential. The Dordrecht Confession of Faith, embodying the distinctive features of Mennonite belief, was issued (1632) in Holland. Mennonites in the United States have settled mainly in Pennsylvania and Ohio (especially in the Amish Country centered on Lancaster co., Pa.) and the Middle West. The first permanent Mennonite settlement in America was made (1683) at Germantown, Pa., by a group from Krefeld, Germany. Mennonites from Switzerland, Russia, and other parts of Europe also emigrated in numbers to North America.

Bibliography

See H. S. Bender et al., ed., The Mennonite Encyclopedia, (5 vol., 1955–90); J. C. Wenger, The Mennonite Church in America (1966); C. Redekop, Mennonite Society (1989); J. A. Hostetler, Amish Society (4th ed. 1993); D. B. Kraybill, The Riddle of Amish Culture (2001); C. E. Hurst and D. L. McConnell, An Amish Paradox: Diversity and Change in the World's Largest Amish Community (2010); D. B. Kraybill et al., The Amish (2013).

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
Loading One moment ...
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited article

Mennonites
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

While we understand printed pages are helpful to our users, this limitation is necessary to help protect our publishers' copyrighted material and prevent its unlawful distribution. We are sorry for any inconvenience.
Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.

Are you sure you want to delete this highlight?