Richmond (cities, United States)

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.
Save to active project

Richmond (cities, United States)

Richmond:1 City (1990 pop. 87,425), Contra Costa co., W Calif., on San Pablo Bay, an inlet of San Francisco Bay; inc. 1905. It is a deepwater commercial port and an industrial center with oil refineries and railroad repair shops. Richmond is a major center of trade with East Asia, Hawaii, and Alaska. The city's diverse manufactures include machinery and instruments, metal products, chemicals, motor vehicles, and construction materials. There is ship building and biotechnology development. Originally part of a Spanish ranch on the site of Native American shell mounds, it was settled in 1823 and then grew with the coming of the Santa Fe RR at the turn of the 20th cent.

2 City (1990 pop. 38,705), seat of Wayne co., E Ind., near the Ohio line; settled 1806 by Quakers from North Carolina, inc. as a city 1840. In the fertile Whitewater River valley, Richmond is primarily an industrial city. There are printing and publishing industries, and metal products, construction materials, foods, animal feed, electronics and electrical products, machinery, and motor vehicle parts are manufactured. Earlham College and Indiana Univ. East are in the city.

3 City (1990 pop. 21,155), seat of Madison co., central Ky., in the bluegrass region; inc. 1800. It is a tobacco and livestock (cattle and thoroughbred horses) market, and there is diversified manufacturing. In the Civil War the battle of Richmond (Aug. 30, 1862) was a Confederate victory. Eastern Kentucky Univ. and a U.S. army depot are in the city.

4 Former name of the New York City borough of Staten Island.

5 City (1990 pop. 203,056), state capital, E Va., at the head of navigation on the James River; settled 1637, inc. as a city 1782. It is a port of entry and a financial, commerical, shipping, and distribution center, with a deepwater port. Richmond is a major tobacco market; tobacco and tobacco products are among its leading manufactures. Clothing; chemicals; pharmaceuticals; metal, wood, and paper products; and computer components are also produced. There are printing and publishing enterprises and numerous corporate headquarters in the city. Richmond is the seat of the Univ. of Richmond, Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Virginia Union Univ., and a theological seminary.

Places of interest include the state capitol (1785), designed by Thomas Jefferson; the Washington Monument; the Valentine Museum; the White House of the Confederacy, once the home of Jefferson Davis, and next to it the Museum of the Confederacy; the American Civil War Center; St. John's Church (1741), where Patrick Henry made his famous "Give me liberty, or give me death" speech; the Edgar Allan Poe Shrine (the oldest building in the city, built c.1686); the Robert E. Lee House (1844); Monument Ave., with its statues of Confederate leaders and tennis player Arthur Ashe; Hollywood Cemetery (1847); the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts; and the Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden.

The first permanent settlement was made in 1637. Fort Charles was built in 1645, and the site became a trading center. The city was laid out in 1737 under the patronage of William Byrd. It was made the capital of Virginia in 1779 and was raided by the British in 1781. During the Civil War, Richmond became the capital of the Confederacy and the constant objective of Union forces. The city was seriously threatened in the Peninsular campaign (1862), when it was saved by the Seven Days battles; in the Wilderness campaign (1864); and in Grant's campaign of 1864–65 around Petersburg, which culminated in Richmond's fall. Much of the city was burned during the Confederate evacuation, Apr. 3, 1865. Richmond National Battlefield Park (see National Parks and Monuments, table) includes several of the battlefields.

See E. M. Thomas, The Confederate State of Richmond (1971); L. White-Raible, Richmond: A Renaissance City (1988).

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
Loading One moment ...
Project items
Cite this article

Cited article

Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited article

Richmond (cities, United States)


Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

While we understand printed pages are helpful to our users, this limitation is necessary to help protect our publishers' copyrighted material and prevent its unlawful distribution. We are sorry for any inconvenience.
Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.

Are you sure you want to delete this highlight?