Rulers of the Roman Empire ( (table))

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.
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Rulers of the Roman Empire ( (table))

Rulers of the Roman Empire

Rulers of the Roman Empire
(including dates of reign)
Augustus, grandnephew of Julius Caesar, 27 BC–AD 14
Tiberius, stepson of Augustus, AD 14–AD 37
Caligula, grandnephew of Tiberius, 37–41
Claudius, uncle of Caligula, 41–54
Nero, stepson of Claudius, 54–68
Galba, proclaimed emperor by his soldiers, 68–69
Otho, military commander, 69
Vespasian, military commander, 69–79
Vitellius, military commander, 69
Titus, son of Vespasian, 79–81
Domitian, son of Vespasian, 81–96
Nerva, elected interim ruler, 96–98
Trajan, adopted son of Nerva, 98–117
Hadrian, ward of Trajan, 117–38
Antoninus Pius, adopted by Hadrian, 138–61
Marcus Aurelius, adopted by Antoninus Pius, 161–80
Lucius Verus, adopted by Antoninus Pius; ruled jointly Marcus Aurelius, 161–69
Commodus, son of Marcus Aurelius, 180–92
Pertinax, proclaimed emperor by the Praetorian Guard, 193
Didius Julianus, bought office from the Praetorian Guard, 193
Severus, proclaimed emperor, 193–211
Caracalla, son of Severus, 211–17
Geta, son of Severus, ruled jointly with Caracalla, 211–12
Macrinus, proclaimed emperor by his soldiers, 217–18
Heliogabalus, cousin of Caracalla, 218–22
Alexander Severus, cousin of Heliogabalus, 222–35
Maximin, proclaimed emperor by soldiers, 235–38
Gordian I, made emperor by the senate, 238
Gordian II, son of Gordian I, ruled jointly with his father, 238
Balbinus, elected joint emperor by the senate, 238
Pupienus Maximus, elected joint emperor with Balbinus by the senate, 238
Gordian III, son of Gordian II, 238–44
Philip (the Arabian), assassin of Gordian III, 244–49
Decius, proclaimed emperor by the soldiers, 249–51
Hostilianus, son of Decius, colleague of Gallus, 251
Gallus, military commander, 251–53
Aemilianus, military commander, 253
Valerian, military commander, 253–60
Gallienus, son of Valerian, coemperor with his father and later sole emperor, 253–68
Claudius II, military commander, 268–70
Aurelian, chosen by Claudius II as successor, 270–75
Tacitus, chosen by the senate, 275–76
Florianus, half-brother of Tacitus, 276
Probus, military commander, 276–82
Carus, proclaimed by the Praetorian Guard, 282–83
Carinus, son of Carus, 283–85
Numerianus, son of Carus, joint emperor with Carinus, 283–84
Diocletian, military commander, divided the empire; ruled jointly with Maximian and Constantius I, 284–305
Maximian, appointed joint emperor by Diocletian, 286–305
Constantius I, joint emperor and successor of Diocletian, 305–6
Galerius, joint emperor with Constantius I, 305–10
Maximin, nephew of Galerius, 308–13
Licinius, appointed emperor in the West by Galerius; later emperor in the East, 308–24
Maxentius, son of Maximian, 306–12
Constantine I (the Great), son of Constantius I, 306–37
Constantine II, son of Constantine I, 337–40
Constans, son of Constantine I, 337–50
Constantius II, son of Constantine I, 337–61
Magnentius, usurped Constans' throne, 350–53
Julian (the Apostate), nephew of Constantine I, 361–63
Jovian, elected by the army, 363–64
Valentinian I, proclaimed by the army; ruled in the West, 364–75
Valens, brother of Valentinian I; ruled in the East, 364–78
Gratian, son of Valentinian I; coruler in the West with Valentinian II, 375–83
Maximus, usurper in the West, 383–88
Valentinian II, son of Valentinian I, ruler of the West, 375–92
Eugenius, usurper in the West, 393–94
Theodosius I (the Great), appointed ruler of the East, 379–95, by Gratian; last ruler of united empire, 394–95
Emperors in the East
(until the fall of Rome; see table entitled Rulers of the Byzantine Empire for later emperors)
Arcadius, son of Theodosius I, 395–408
Theodosius II, son of Arcadius, 408–50
Marcian, brother-in-law of Theodosius II, 450–57
Leo I, chosen by the senate, 457–74
Leo II, grandson of Leo I, 474
Zeno, 474–75
Basilicus, 475–76
Emperors in the West
Honorius, son of Theodosius I, 395–423
Maximus, usurper in Spain, 409–11
Constantius III, named joint emperor by Honorius, 421
Valentinian III, nephew of Honorius and son of Constantius III, 425–55
Petronius Maximus, bought office by bribery, 455
Avitus, placed in office by Goths, 455–56
Majorian, puppet emperor of Ricimer, 457–61
Libius Severus, puppet emperor of Ricimer, 461–65
Anthemius, appointed by Ricimer and Leo I, 467–72
Olybrius, appointed by Ricimer, 472–73
Glycerius, appointed by Leo I, 473–74
Julius Nepos, appointed by Leo I, 474–75
Romulus Augustulus, put in office by Orestes, his father, 474–76

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