explosive

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.

explosive

explosive, substance that undergoes decomposition or combustion with great rapidity, evolving much heat and producing a large volume of gas. The reaction products fill a much greater volume than that occupied by the original material and exert an enormous pressure, which can be used for blasting and for propelling.

Classification of Explosives

Chemical explosives can be classified as low or high explosives. Low (or deflagrating) explosives are used primarily for propelling; they are mixtures of readily combustible substances (e.g., gunpowder) that when set off (by ignition) undergo rapid combustion. High (or detonating) explosives (e.g., TNT) are used mainly for shattering; they are unstable molecules that can undergo explosive decomposition without any external source of oxygen and in which the chemical reaction produces rapid shock waves. Important explosives include trinitrotoluene (TNT), dynamite, nitrocellulose, nitroglycerin, and picric acid. Cyclonite (RDX) was an important explosive in World War II. Ammonium nitrate is of major importance in blasting.

Applications of Explosives

The major use of explosives has been in warfare. High explosives have been used in bombs, explosive shells, torpedoes, and missile warheads. Nondetonating explosives, e.g., gunpowder and the smokeless powders, have found extensive use as propellants for bullets and artillery shells.

The most important peaceful use of detonating explosives is to break rocks in mining. A hole is drilled in the rock and filled with any of a variety of high explosives; the high explosive is then detonated, either electrically or with a special high-explosive cord. Special explosives, called permissible explosives, must be used in coal mines. These explosives produce little or no flame and explode at low temperatures to prevent secondary explosions of mine gases (see damp) and dust. One important explosive used in mining, called ANFO, is a mixture of ammonium nitrate and fuel oil. Its use has revolutionized certain aspects of open-pit and underground mining because of its low cost and relative safety.

Development of Nondetonating Explosives

Until the 19th cent. gunpowder was widely used in most types of firearms. The invention of various smokeless powders led to the ultimate replacement of gunpowder as a propellant in rifles and guns. Probably the first successful smokeless powder was made by Edward Schultze, a Prussian artillery captain, c.1864. After 1870 it was known as Schultze powder. Its rate of burning was less than that of guncotton because of the partial gelatinization of the powder by a mixture of ether and alcohol; however, it still burned too rapidly for use in rifles. Schultze powder is used in shotguns, blank cartridges, and hand grenades and in igniting the dense, propellant powder used in artillery. The main constituent of Schultze powder is nitrocellulose.

About 1885 a smokeless powder suitable for rifled guns appeared. Invented by Paul Vieille, it was called poudre B and was made from nitrocotton and ether-alcohol. Subsequently, Alfred Nobel added to the growing list of smokeless powders a substance called Ballistite. In Ballistite two of the most powerful explosives known at the time were united; it is made from nitrocotton (with a low nitrogen content) gelatinized by nitroglycerin. Another smokeless powder, cordite, was invented by Sir Frederick Augustus Abel and Sir James Dewar in 1889; it contained a highly nitrated guncotton and nitroglycerin blended by means of acetone. Mineral jelly was added to act as a lubricant. Indurite, invented by Charles E. Monroe in 1891, is made from guncotton and is colloided with nitrobenzine; washing with methyl alcohol frees the lower nitrates from the guncotton.

Bibliography

See T. C. Davis, The Chemistry of Powder and Explosives (2 vol., repr. 1972); J. F. Stoffel, Explosives and Homemade Bombs (2d ed. 1972); R. Meyer, Explosives (3d ed. 1987).

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

explosive
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.