first aid

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.

first aid

first aid, immediate and temporary treatment of a victim of sudden illness or injury while awaiting the arrival of medical aid. Proper early measures may be instrumental in saving life and ensuring a better and more rapid recovery. The avoidance of unnecessary movement and over-excitation of the victim often prevents further injury. Conditions that require immediate attention to avert death include cessation of breathing (asphyxia), severe bleeding, poisoning, strokes, and heart attack. The essentials of first aid treatment also include the correct bandaging of a wound; the application of splints for fractures and dislocations; the effective methods of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and artificial respiration; and treatment of shock, frostbite, fainting, bites and stings, burns, and heat exhaustion.

Asphyxia and Obstruction of Air Passages

Symptoms: Blue discoloration of face, tongue, and lips; gasping; inability to speak; unconsciousness. Treatment: First try the Heimlich maneuver, grasping the victim from behind with hands linked in front and compressing the abdomen just below the ribs. Encourage victim to cough up foreign objects in throat; as a last resort, rap victim between shoulder blades to dislodge object. For asphyxia caused by gas or fumes, remove victim to a clear atmosphere; use artificial respiration.

Bites and Stings

Symptoms: Wound (animal or human bite) or swelling and pain (insect sting). Treatment: For animal and human bites, cleanse wound with soap and water and apply iodine containing antiseptic; submit animal for rabies test. For poisonous snakebite, cooling the site of the wound with ice will slow down absorption of poisons; antivenin treatment is required only for a small number of reptile bites. Prevent exertion and taking of stimulants by victim. For insect stings apply cortisone ointments, soothing lotions, or cool compress. Persons who are allergic to insect stings should carry adrenaline with them at all times. Papain, the main ingredient in "meat tenderizer," is effective in coral sting injuries.

Burns

Symptoms: Redness (first-degree burns), blistering (second-degree burns), charring of skin (third-degree burns). Treatment: Cold water may be applied to first- and second-degree burns. All burns should be covered with sterile non-adherent dressings. Chemical burns should be washed with large quantity of water; vinegar may be added to the water for alkali burns, and sodium bicarbonate may be added to the water in case of acid burns.

Drowning and Near-Drowning

Treatment: Immediate artificial respiration, and CPR. There is controversy over whether or not the Heimlich maneuver should be used in conjunction with CPR in order to dislodge water in the lungs and stomach.

Fainting

Symptoms: Unconsciousness, paleness, rapid pulse, coldness of the skin, sweating. Treatment: Leave victim lying down, loosen clothing, roll victim to the side and wipe out mouth in the event of vomiting.

Foreign Body in the Eye

Symptoms: Pain, redness, burning, tears. Treatment: Pull down lower lid and remove unembedded object with clean tissue if it lies on the inner surface of lower lid. If object has not been located, pull upper lid forward and down over lower lid. Object can be removed from surface of upper eyelid by turning lid back over a swabstick or similar object and lifting off the foreign body with a clean tissue. Finally, flush the eye with water. If object is suspected to be embedded, apply a dry, protective dressing over eye, and call physician or take patient to hospital emergency room. Keep victim from rubbing the eye. For chemical burns, flood eyes with water.

Fractures and Joint Injuries

Symptoms: Pain or tenderness, deformity of bones, swelling, discoloration. Treatment: Prevent movement of injured parts until splint is applied; treat for shock; if ambulance service is not available, splint entire limb before moving. For sprains, elevate affected part and apply cold compresses. Elastic bandages may be used for immobilization.

Frostbite

Symptoms: Numbness, pale, glossy skin, possible blistering. Treatment: Warm by placing victim indoors, remove covering, bathe frozen part in warm water; do not massage. For cold exposure, give artificial respiration. Placing blankets over a person who has a reduced body core temperature will do no good; heat must be applied to the victim to bring the temperature up to normal. If conscious, give warm liquids by mouth.

Heat Exhaustion

Symptoms: Pale, clammy skin, profuse perspiration, weakness, headache, possibly cramps. Treatment: Rest, cool atmosphere, cool water by mouth if conscious. In case of heat cramp, exert firm pressure on cramped muscle (usually abdomen or legs) to help relieve spasms.

Heatstroke

Symptoms: High temperature (as high as 108–112°F/42–44°C), hot dry skin, rapid pulse, possibly unconsciousness. Treatment: Immediately undress victim and sponge with or immerse in cool water or wrap in water-soaked sheets. Use fan or air conditioner.

Poisoning

Symptoms and signs: Information from victim or observer, stains about mouth, presence of poison container, breath odor, pupils contracted to pinpoint size from morphine or narcotics. Treatment: Dilute ingested poison by administering water or milk, administer specific antidote if described on label of commercial product. Do not induce vomiting if poison is strong acid, strong alkali, or petroleum product, or if victim is unconscious or convulsive. Syrup of Ipecac available without prescription at pharmacies may be administered to induce vomiting in other cases. A universal antidote contains Ipecac and activated charcoal; the latter absorbs the poison and the former causes it to be expelled.

Severe Bleeding

Symptoms: External wound. Treatment: Apply pressure over wound with wad of sterile gauze or other clean material. If bleeding continues and no fracture is present, elevate wound. If bleeding still continues, apply pressure to blood vessels leading to area—in arm, press just below armpit; in leg, press against groin where thigh and trunk join. Use a tourniquet (tight band that cuts off circulation) only when it has been decided that the sacrifice of a limb is necessary to save life.

Shock

Symptoms: Pale (or bluish) skin (in victim with dark skin examine inside of mouth and nailbeds for bluish coloration), cool skin, weakness, weak pulse; unresponsiveness and dilated pupils in later stages. Treatment: Keep victim lying down and covered enough to prevent loss of body heat. The body position should be adjusted according to the victim's injuries. Victims in shock may improve if the feet are raised 8 to 12 in. (20–30 cm). For electric shock, cut off current or separate victim from contact with electricity by using dry wood, rope, cloth, or rubber; administer CPR.

Wound

Treatment: Stop bleeding, cleanse wound with soap and water and cover with sterile or clean bandage.

Bibliography

See Red Cross literature for a complete description of first aid techniques.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

first aid
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.