Promoting Success in Physical Education: Cooperatively Structured Learning

By Grineski, Steven | Palaestra, Winter 1991 | Go to article overview

Promoting Success in Physical Education: Cooperatively Structured Learning


Grineski, Steven, Palaestra


Promoting Success in Physical Education: Cooperatively Structured Learning

For students with impairments, least restrictive environments for physical education should be based upon placement that promotes appropriate and successful learning. According to Loovis (1987), two problems in placement occur that minimize successful learning in physical education for students with impairments: exclusion from regular physical education when student needs would best be met in this setting, and placing students with impairments in regular physical education when student needs dictate a more restricted setting. When either of these inappropriate placements occur, students may experience decreased opportunities for successful learning. This article examines successful learning in physical education and suggests a strategy for promoting successful learning in integrated as well as segregated physical education settings for students with impairments.

Successful Learning in Physical Education

For students with impairments to develop their psychomotor, cognitive, and affective skills fully in physical education they must experience successful learning, like their non-impaired peers. Research findings have suggested that teachers can promote successful learning by providing ample and appropriate opportunities for psychomotor, cognitive, and affective skill practice in environments specifically designed for learning (Gage, 1984; Rink, 1985; Sidentop, 1983). When practicing and learning new skills, it has been suggested by Rosenshine (1983) that students should experience an 80 percent success rate. Sherrill (1986) also has suggested that teachers who exhibit humanistic viewpoints (i.e., belief in equity) toward students with impairments also promote successful learning in physical education. This viewpoint is expressed by teacher behaviors such as advocacy and respect of intra-individual differences. Two major goals that provide a conceptual framework for planning successful learning experiences in physical education are zero reject and zero fail (Eichstaedt, 1976). These goals suggest that all students will, in whatever way possible and appropriate, participate in physical education and experience some degree of successful learning.

Given the importance of success in developing a positive self-concept, the challenge for teachers to plan, teach, and evaluate so all students can experience success in physical education is critical. It has been reported that an important variable affecting opportunities for students with impairments to experience successful learning in physical education is attitude of the teacher (Martinez, 1982; Rizzo, 1984). A teacher's ability to teach students with impairments and the teacher's attitude towards these students are two problems that have been identified as limiting opportunities for successful learning in physical education for students with impairments (Jansma & Schulz, 1982; Miller & Sabatino, 1978; Rizzo & Wright, 1988). Unless attitudes of teachers change and become more favorable towards students with impairments, opportunities for successful learning will not be actualized.

Developing successful physical education programs in least restrictive environments is a difficult yet challenging task for teachers. In developing successful programs teachers need to be willing to take risks and imagine a variety of possible solutions intended to remedy challenges presented by their students (Sherrill, 1986). Emphasis needs to be placed on abilities the learner brings to the setting, rather than disabilities. Emphasis on disabilities can promote negative attitudes and expectations for teachers and students and minimizes rather than promotes successful learning. Making ability count is a philosophical basis for teachers who plan and teach physical education activities designed to promote successful learning in psychomotor, cognitive, and affective domains of learning (Eichstaedt & Kalakian, 1987). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Promoting Success in Physical Education: Cooperatively Structured Learning
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.