First, Second, and Third Force Psychology Serve as the Only Scientific Means for Determining Parole Readiness and Prison Reform

By Cassel, Rusell N. | Journal of Instructional Psychology, June 2003 | Go to article overview

First, Second, and Third Force Psychology Serve as the Only Scientific Means for Determining Parole Readiness and Prison Reform


Cassel, Rusell N., Journal of Instructional Psychology


First, second, and third force psychologies were described in detail by Ernest Hilgard. First force was based on "Conditioning Theory" and is no longer used with human beings. Second force is based on Freud's psychoanalytic theory and is presently used in this connection throughout the world. Third force psychology is "Person Centered" and is based on Roger's and Maslow's theories. It was developed in the 1960s and is used throughout the world today.

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As a student of Ernest Hilgard of Stanford University for a number of years, and then in 1976 I did a feature on his theory in Education, and later I did a second feature on a friend Publisher of Hilgard, and learned to know him as a friend .He insists that today there are clearly three distinct and independently organized theories of psychology, and that each one of those is directly related to the indepenedence demonstrated by individuals involved.

First Force Psychology

First Force Psychology was developed in large part by B.F. Skinner (1969), and it is typically imposed by persons external to individuals involved. It employs a hypothetico-deductive method using behaviorism and a stimulus-response theory that is essential on a continuing bases for effectiveness. It is no longer used for human beings except for persons in a "Closed" Neuro-Psychiatric Ward, or for prisoners in Solitary Confinement, because people never become fully cognitive in their general orientation through operant conditioning.

Second Force Psychology

Second Force Psychology is the theory underlying the use of psychoanalysis throughout the health care facilities of the world today (Taylor, 1992). It derives directly from the early work of Sigmund Freud in the 1880s, and where "free association" is used to reveal areas and nature of "hurts" lying deep in one's unconscious that serve to demobilize one's full capacity. In theory when one becomes fully aware of the location and nature of such unconscious hurts, they can reconcile them in a reasoning and logical manner. Second Force Psychlogy is typically used with Neuro-Psychiatric patients, or with addicted individuals with psychiatric problems evident. The Cognitive Dissonance Test (Cassel & Chow) is designed to reveal the area and nature of such unconscious hurts. A Psychologist or Counselor can then help the indivdual deal with each hurt individually.

Scientific Approach Using Cognitive Dissonance

It was Leon Festinger of Stanford University (1957) who introduced "Cognitive Dissonance" as a substitute for "Free Association" as used by Freud, and defined it as "feelings of unpleasantness" which an individual possesses lying deep in the unconscious, and where the individual seldom if ever realizes the reasons for such feelings. The Cognitive Dissonance Test was developed based on the Festinger theory to serve as a means for helping individuals discover the areas and nature of "cognitive dissonance;" so that on a conscious level they might help to plan for ways to eliminate such hurts. The Psychologist and even the Guidance Counselor are capable of employing the same theory being used by the Psychiatrist in Psychoanalysis, but in a much more simplified manner. Four of the eight part scores are included within the Internal and Personal areas of life; while the other four are from the External and Impersonal areas of one's life space. A Confluence Score (CON) is included to insure that the items on the DISS test are really read and understood.

I. Internal & Personal:

1. Home & Family-HOM

2. Emotional Development-EMO

3. Moral Development-MOR

4. Health & Well-being-HEA

5. School & Learning-SCH

Part I Total-IPTOT

II. External & Impersonal:

6. Social Affiliation-SOC

7. Survival & Power-SUR

8. Racial & Social Class-RAC

Part II Total-EITOT

DISS Total Score-DISTOT

Confluence Score-CON

Eight Part Scores

Home & Family--the period involving the early rearing of the child and the support system that is involved in that period of life. …

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First, Second, and Third Force Psychology Serve as the Only Scientific Means for Determining Parole Readiness and Prison Reform
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