Electric Energy Conservation and Load Management

Economic Review, March 1991 | Go to article overview

Electric Energy Conservation and Load Management


Electric Energy Conservation and Load Management

Electric energy consumption is growing at pace exceeding 11 per cent in Pakistan. Time and money do not permit the construction of new generating plants to alleviate the crisis of loadshedding in the near term. Studies have been made which estimate that 10 per cent of industrial Kwh sales could be saved through conservation measures. There is sufficient potential to make a difference. WAPDA has recognized these conditions and has been developing programmes to minimize the negative effect of loadshedding. As these programmes become implemented, it will be up to WAPDA's customers to take heed and to take advantage of the opportunities that will be availed to them.

The Power Distribution Project is a USAID sponsored programme which involves the development of programmes and the supply of commodities, much of which is directed toward the conservation of electrical energy. This paper will describe the critical need to supply adequate supplies of electrical energy in Pakistan and discuss the WAPDA/PDP programmes that have been and are being developed to meet the challenge. WAPDA is proceeding to make energy efficiency improvements to its own system and influence its customers to reduce the waste of electrical energy with the assistance of the PDP.

The Energy Conservation and Load Management Challenge

Reducing loadshedding is recognized as the single most important challenge facing WAPDA today. The load curve of a typical summer day shows the inability of WAPDA to meet its customer's peak requirements (viewgraph No. 1). New customers are being added, as mandated by the Government of Pakistan, without the support of additional generation, exacerbating the situation. Also, existing customers are finding new ways to use electricity as their standard of living increases and new electrical appliances are purchased. The capital expenditure by customers is low in comparison to the costs to supply the energy. For example, electric heaters are being purchased for Rs. 100 which require an expenditure by WAPDA of Rs. 18,000 just to supply the generation!.

Loadshedding is for the most part an inconvenience to Domestic customers. However, for the Industrial, Commercial and Agricultural customers the costs can be staggering. Studies on the economic effect of loadshedding on industry in Pakistan have established that the costs were as high as Rs. 10 to 100 for each kWH of loadshedding. Obviously something has to be done and that something can be energy conservation and load management.

WAPDA Programmes to meet the challenge

WAPDA Side of the Meter: WAPDA's Energy Loss Reduction (ELR) programme, working in conjunction with the PDP, has contributed significantly to reducing energy losses on the distribution system. The programme provides for reconductoring of 11 kV distribution lines and the installation of capacitors to reduce line losses, thereby conserving energy.

A Vax computer has been installed in WAPDA's headquarters office and equipped with the Computer Assisted Distribution Planning and Design (CADPAD) programme. This equipment, supplied under the PDP, enables WAPDA engineers to maximize the use of available material and minimize line losses to conserve energy. Micro-Computers with similar software are now being installed in all operating divisions for engineers at that level to develop the most energy efficient HT/LT line construction and rehabilitation plans.

Customer Side of the Meter: Three strategies can be used to meet the challenge of reducing loadshedding on the WAPDA system. These are are as follows:

Peak Clipping: Reduction of load during peak periods can be achieved through direct control of customers load or through loadshedding. Utility activated customer demand control is sophisticated, complex and expensive and therefore not viable for Pakistan at the present time. Consequently, WAPDA must resort to loadshedding.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Electric Energy Conservation and Load Management
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.