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1953

SEPTEMBER 1

Fifty years ago, the new Moscow State University building was opened on Vorobyovy (Sparrow) Hills. A monument to Mikhail Lomonosov was also unveiled at the university on the same day. The main building of the university is 32 stories high and is topped by a 57 meter spire.

1878

SEPTEMBER 2

On this day the first all women's college in Russia was opened (August 23, old style). The college was named Bestuzhevskiye Courses, after Professor Bestuzhev-Ryumin, the official founder and first director. The college was only open to women 21 years and older who had secondary education, and whose families could afford the tuition. "Bestuzhevki" (as the college's students were called) studied history, philology, physics and mathematics.

1828

SEPTEMBER 3

Chemist Alexander Butlerov, father of the theory, of chemical structure and founder of the famous Kazan School of organic chemistry, was born on this day: According to Butlerov, characteristics of a substance could he deduced based on its chemical structure and vice versa. Butlerov authored the popular textbook, Introduction to Complete Studies of Organic Chemistry, in which he introduced his new theory.

1928

SEPTEMBER 6

This is the birthday of Yevgeny Svetlanov, one of Russia's distinguished conductors. Also a talented pianist and the author of numerous symphonies and musical poems, Svetlanov was for many years chief conductor of the Bolshoi Theatre. His major works were recorded in the 1960s, when he conducted the Soviet Union's State Symphony Orchestra.

1993

SEPTMBER 7

Russia's first Museum of Photography, was opened in Nizhny Novgorod on this date ten years ago.

1828

SEPTEMBER 9

One this day (August 28, old style) Leo Tolstoy, one of the giants of 19th century Russian literature, was born on Iris family's estate in Yasnaya Polyana. Apart from his famous novels War and Peace and Anna Karenina, Tolstoy's works also included the charming autobiographical novels, Childhood, Boyhood and Youth (1852-1856), the novel Cossacks (1863), the novella The Death of Ivan Ilyich, and many others. Russian Life devoted most in Aug/Sep 1998 issue to Tolstoy.

1913

SEPTEMBER 9

On this day, military pilot Pyotr Nesterov became the world's first pilot to do a vertical loop, Aerobatics had been forbidden in the military' and Nesterov was arrested for endangering government property, only to be released two weeks Later Mien a Frenchman duplicated the feat and the military was forced to he proud of its "deviant." Since that time, the maneuver has been called a "Nesterov loop."

1918

SEPTEMBER 9

Writer and translator Boris Zakhoder, winner of many literary awards, would have turned 85 today. Zakhoder largely became famous as a translator of children's classics: Winnie the Pooh by A.A.Milne, Mary Poppins by Pamela Travers, the Brothers Grimm fairy tales and other works of Czech, German and Polish authors. Zakhoder had a red distinctive voice, so his translations were more adaptations, often abridged, than true translations of the originals Zakhoder also wrote children's poetry; his rhymes about animals were known to every child raised in Russia in the 20th century. He died in Moscow in 2000.

1933

SEPTEMBER 9

On this day, the Children's Literature Publishing House was founded. In soviet times it was one of the largest publishing houses, and had several branches in other cities. Such well known writers as Maxim Gorky, Samuil Marshak, Korney Chukovsky and Arkady Gaidar took an active part in its work.

1938

SEPTEMBER 10

On this day, the first All-Union Conductors' Competition opened in Moscow; Yevgeny Mravinsky and Natan Rakhlin were among its winners.

1873

SEPTEMBER 11

Two electric street lamps, devised by inventor Alexander Lodygin, were lit in Odesskaya Street in St.

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