Evaluating Teacher Modeling as a Strategy to Increase Student Reading Behavior

By Methe, Scott A.; Hintze, John M. | School Psychology Review, Fall 2003 | Go to article overview
Save to active project

Evaluating Teacher Modeling as a Strategy to Increase Student Reading Behavior


Methe, Scott A., Hintze, John M., School Psychology Review


Abstract. The purpose of this research was to implement and evaluate a classroom strategy to increase student engagement in sustained silent reading (SSR), a form of school-based recreational reading. Teacher modeling was selected as the primary intervention. A within-subjects ABAB withdrawal design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. Baseline data indicated moderate and variable percentages of student SSR. Rapid and marked changes in silent reading behavior were observed during intervention phases. Results suggest that teacher modeling of SSR is an effective functional intervention that can be used to increase student engagement. Implications and limitations are discussed with emphasis on establishing procedures to support successful classroom SSR programs.

**********

Reading is the most fundamental and culturally imperative manipulation of the alphabetic system and an essential component in the development and future success of American children (Adams, 1990; Kaminski & Good, 1998). Using the alphabetic system is a fundamental component of literacy, a comprehensive term inclusive of reading and its related processes (Adams, 1990; Kamhi & Catts, 1998). Teachers in American schools support the fundamental mission of education by helping children develop as skilled readers and literate citizens. However, teaching reading extends beyond instructing mastery of the alphabetic principle and word-level comprehension (Adams, 1990; Pressley, 1998; Thompson & Nicholson, 1999), especially in intermediate grades. Skilled reading development involves significantly more than receiving decoding instruction; learning to read proficiently combines skill mastery with engagement in literate practices such as recreational reading (Adams, 1990; Pressley, 1998; Widdowson, Moore, & Dixon, 1999). To this end, Johnston, Afflerbach, and Weiss (1993) indicate that teachers' primary instructional goals are to foster enjoyment, enthusiasm, and a deep appreciation for reading in their students. In addition, many state curriculum frameworks include recreational silent reading as a language arts component. If frequent engagement in reading is a desirable social and educational outcome, how is it encouraged and taught?

School leaders, including administrators, teachers, and classroom assistants, influence the behavior of children in a number of ways. An effective and direct method for influencing the behavior of children is demonstrating, or modeling, desired behavior. Social Learning Theory (SLT; Bandura, 1977) suggests that valued, "high-status" models can positively affect the perceived importance of an activity and can evoke a desirable behavioral response more readily by providing the observer with ongoing visual feedback. Among other roles, teachers are essential facilitators of desirable behavior in a classroom context and are thus in the position to be valued models (Gambrell, 1996; Grubach, 1986).

Teacher modeling is a common element identified across academic reading programs (Gambrell, 1996; Grubaugh, 1986). Sustained silent reading (SSR) is an important component of reading and language arts curricula where teachers encourage student interest and engagement in recreational reading (Gambrell, 1996; Grubaugh, 1986; Pluck, Ghafari, Glynn, & McNaughton, 1984; Wheldall & Entwistle, 1988; Widdowson, Dixon, & Moore, 1996; Widdowson et al., 1999). Moreover, SSR is used in schools as a way to "foster a recreational reading habit" (Widdowson et al., 1999; p. 216). Consistent with SLT, studies examining SSR have evaluated how teacher modeling is used to strengthen the value and desirability of silent reading. Additional components of SSR programs are (a) student selection of interesting materials, (b) brief teacher self-directed introductory prompts, and (c) discussions following the SSR period.

In many classrooms, however, teachers use SSR in ways that fail to consistently model desired behavior (Gambrell, 1996; Wheldall & Entwistle, 1988; Widdowson et al.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
Loading One moment ...
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited article

Evaluating Teacher Modeling as a Strategy to Increase Student Reading Behavior
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

While we understand printed pages are helpful to our users, this limitation is necessary to help protect our publishers' copyrighted material and prevent its unlawful distribution. We are sorry for any inconvenience.
Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.

Are you sure you want to delete this highlight?