Making the Grade: Achieving Universal Education

By Rennell, Corey | Harvard International Review, Winter 2004 | Go to article overview

Making the Grade: Achieving Universal Education


Rennell, Corey, Harvard International Review


The passage of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1950 spurred efforts around the world to ensure that everyone has a right to education." More than 50 years later, as states still struggle to achieve universal education, Nigeria's Universal Basic Education Act (UBE) and the US No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) have garnered the greatest international attention for their professed abilities to finally realize this goal. However, the controversy surrounding both suggests that these programs may not be all that they appear.

Nigeria's gross domestic product (GDP) ranks 211th out of the 229 countries in the world at US$875 per capita, while the United States has the second highest GDP with US$36,300 per capita. Yet while 60 percent of the Nigerian population is below the US poverty line and almost half of all US citizens own a car, Nigeria's universal education plan seems to be meeting with more success.

The United States has been working with a universal education base for some time longer than Nigeria, which only began its implementation through the Universal Primary Education program in the mid-1970s. Accordingly, the disparity in the criticism of the two programs may be somewhat justified. Critics of NCLB, such as the National School Board Association (NSBA), have mainly focused on the flawed accountability requirements that may lead to more children being "left behind" by the educational system than before. The main criticism of the UBE is proverbial in education policy: lack of funding.

According to the Chairman of Nigeria's Independent National Electoral Commission, Dr. Abel Guobadia, "no curriculum change, no infrastructural innovation, no restructuring of the educational system ... will succeed in arresting the falling standards of education, if the institutions continue to lack the sufficient funds for the effective operation." In 2002, the first year for both programs, UBE spent the approximate equivalent of US$112 million, while NCLB allotted US$13.5 billion. While Nigeria spends far less on its education program, UBE funding can annually be no less than two percent of the Nigerian consolidated revenue fund (which the National Assembly originally proposed as 10 percent before it was vetoed by President Olusegun Obasanjo), while NCLB last yea," comprised less than one percent of the annual budget and has no required budgetary allocation.

Since both programs are fairly young, statistics are not yet available on the success of either. However, some information can be gathered from their infrastructure. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Making the Grade: Achieving Universal Education
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.