Ethics of Access, Boundary Keeping and Forest Resource Management in Indonesian Borneo: Potential Tools for Conservation Work among Mobile Peoples *

By Wadley, Reed L. | Nomadic Peoples, June 2003 | Go to article overview

Ethics of Access, Boundary Keeping and Forest Resource Management in Indonesian Borneo: Potential Tools for Conservation Work among Mobile Peoples *


Wadley, Reed L., Nomadic Peoples


Resume

Ethique de l'accession aux ressources forestieres, de la protection de leur limites et de leur gestion: quelques approches possibles du travail de conservation avec des populations mobiles

Les facteurs sociaux et politiques influencent la gestion et la repartition des droits sur les ressources locales. Cet article illustre une approche qui isole des variables importantes impliquees dans les decisions d'acces. Ainsi, cet article traite de l'influence des processus socio-politiques, au niveau local, sur la gestion des ressources et de sa pertinence par rapport a la conservation. Les exemples sont tires d'un amas de produits forestiers autres que du bois, originaire de Borneo indonesien.

Resumen

La etica del acceso, de observar los linderos y de manejar los recursos forestales en el Borneo Indonesio: Utiles potenciales para el trabajo de preservacion entre fentes moviles

Los cambios de los factores sociales y politicos influyen el reparto y la gestion de los derechos entre los recursos locales. Este articulo ilustra un metodo que separa variables importantes involucradas en las decisiones de acceso. De este modo, este articulo trata de la influencia de los procesos socio-politicos a nivel local sobre la gestion de los recursos y de su relevancia en cuanto a la conservacion. Los ejemplos estan sacados de una recogida de productos forestales que no son de madera provenientes de Borneo indonesio.

Introduction

The dominant model of biodiversity conservation today centres on co-management, or collaborative management of natural resources between local communities that often rely on those resources, and outside conservation authorities. A prevailing assumption of co-management has been that local management can lead to more sustainable resource use and thus better conservation of biodiversity (cf. Smith and Wishnie 2000). Concerns of equity also figure into co-management, in order that locals can maintain some control and use of resources that might otherwise be alienated from them under more draconian conservation policies. In trying to make co-management work, one important pre-condition is for outside managers to have a good understanding of how locals actually use and manage their resources (Colfer et al. 1999, Colfer et al. 2000). One aspect of this is knowing locally relevant property regimes and traditions (Murphee 1997, Lewis 1996). Equally important to this, but something that is frequently overlooked by conservationists focused on ecology and economy, is how shifting social and political factors influence the ways locals manage their resources and allocate rights to those resources (Wollenberg 1999). That social dynamics underlie human management of natural resources is widely acknowledged in the social sciences (Berry 1989, 1993, Gibson 1999, Shipton and Goheen 1992). Unfortunately, the often difficult jargon used by social scientists treating the subject makes much of this work inaccessible and impractical to others (Escobar 1996, Brosius et al. 1998).

Issues of resource access fit squarely into such questions, and this paper will examine how community boundaries are kept and how requests for access to community resources are negotiated. As a means of isolating several key variables and illustrating the value of this approach to conservation concerns, it will focus on the regulation of outside collection of non-timber forest products (in particular, the resinous wood, gaharu [Aquilaria malaccensis and other species]) from community-held and -managed forests in the Indonesian provinces of East and West Kalimantan. Although this approach need not be limited to mobile peoples, the cases I use come from swidden-farming Kenyah Dayak communities situated in and around the Kayan Mentarang National Park in East Kalimantan, and from a swidden-farming Iban Dayak community located adjacent to the Danau Sentarum National Park (see Giesen 2000; Figure 1).

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Ethics of Access, Boundary Keeping and Forest Resource Management in Indonesian Borneo: Potential Tools for Conservation Work among Mobile Peoples *
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