50 Years of Management: Where from and Where to Now? Where from and Where to Now? Managers, over the Course of the 20th Century, Transformed the World in Which We Live and Work. and for 50 Years Management Magazine Reported and Recorded That Transformation in New Zealand. but in the Fading Years of the Past Millennium, the Pace of Management Change Quickened and Now It Is Time to Ask

New Zealand Management, February 2004 | Go to article overview

50 Years of Management: Where from and Where to Now? Where from and Where to Now? Managers, over the Course of the 20th Century, Transformed the World in Which We Live and Work. and for 50 Years Management Magazine Reported and Recorded That Transformation in New Zealand. but in the Fading Years of the Past Millennium, the Pace of Management Change Quickened and Now It Is Time to Ask


Like every other sub-species, managers evolved--a product of an environment they themselves constantly shape, mould and recreate at the behest of owners and the dictates of the marketplace. Their ancestry dates back several thousand years, but 'modern managers' really only emerged from the grime of the Industrial Revolution in the 20th century.

Despite this fast-tracked evolution, some experts believe management's organisational habitat is changing so rapidly that managers will not adapt in time to survive. When Kenneth Cloke and Joan Goldsmith, authors of the book The End of Management, told one of managements founding theorists Peter Drucker of their plans to write the book, he simply responded: "It's about time."

But is it really likely that managers have had their day? Doubtful, although there is a pronounced global swing toward greatly modified behaviour. Managers at the top end of the corporate feeding chain all too frequently show signs of excessive behaviour and abuse of their environment. Over-grazing can lead to extinction.

The first age of management

For their first 50 or so years, modern managers were masters and commanders--not much removed from their feudal ancestors. Command-and-control management survives to this day. It consists of a set of policies and procedures designed to provide managers with the tools to demand employee compliance, a form of minimalist individuality.

The first half of the 20th century was the scientific management age. Working life and enterprise was dominated by the assembly line and systematisers like Frederick Taylor, who introduced discipline and task analysis to "previously ad-hoe" operations. Schools of business, like Harvard, appeared and in 1922 Harvard began publishing the Harvard Business Review, a magazine committed to publishing the new genre of academic management literature. The first comprehensive account of executive management was written in 1916 by a Frenchman, Henri Fayol. But, according to HBR, "Taylor's influence was so great" that it took several decades before the Frenchman's ideas on formal management responsibilities became widely known.

The 1930s' depression and its ultimate solution, increased government regulation, changed the marketplace and, before long, the managers' world. America's New Deal and Europe's Welfare State emerged. Unions challenged management control while some American business writers argued that stockholders had lost influence over their managers. By war's end the first age of managers was over, though a good many old practices remain.

Post-war management

"We have been told for years that we are moving away from hierarchical organisations and command-and-control structures," says Auckland-based knowledge management consultant and author Carl Davidson. "Everywhere I work I still see hierarchical organisations and command-and-control structures."

After 1945 marketing and diversification took hold. A decade later and just as this magazine hit the desks of Kiwi managers, Drucker wrote his Practice of Management--a comprehensive guide that emphasised management objectives rather than social relations. America's W Edwards Deming, a neglected prophet in his homeland, began converting war-spawned Japanese industries to his teachings on "quality management". And the surge in corporate growth and confidence--particularly in America--took off and continued unabated for the rest of the century, increasingly assisted by at first a fledgling, then a soaring information technology industry.

The New Zealand Institute of Management was formed in 1945. It was, says former NZIM national president Doug Matheson, a response to understanding the importance of "training for supervisors and managers". New Zealand industry realised that managers "needed to be trained in the knowledge and skills of management. Employers recognised that good managers make a difference. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

50 Years of Management: Where from and Where to Now? Where from and Where to Now? Managers, over the Course of the 20th Century, Transformed the World in Which We Live and Work. and for 50 Years Management Magazine Reported and Recorded That Transformation in New Zealand. but in the Fading Years of the Past Millennium, the Pace of Management Change Quickened and Now It Is Time to Ask
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.