Assessing Workload through Physiological Measurements in Bus Drivers Using an Automated System during Docking

By Collet, Christian; Petit, Claire et al. | Human Factors, Winter 2003 | Go to article overview

Assessing Workload through Physiological Measurements in Bus Drivers Using an Automated System during Docking


Collet, Christian, Petit, Claire, Champely, Stephane, Dittmar, Andre, Human Factors


INTRODUCTION

Traffic systems are undergoing important changes with the advent of intelligent transport systems (ITSs). Safety remains the predominant preoccupation when integrating an ITS into vehicles. Intelligent technologies may potentially improve traffic safety. They may also affect it adversely. Interactions between humans and ITSs (human-machine interaction) should therefore be carefully evaluated. The effect on safety depends on specific advanced technologies and the manner in which these are incorporated into the vehicle. ITSs should be developed as user-centered solutions rather than technology-centered answers (Noy, 1997). Greater efforts must be directed toward understanding and accommodating the human element in road transportation so that future transportation objectives may be achieved (e.g., reducing vehicle crashes). According to Noy, there is a need to expand the scope of traditional human factors on understanding human interactions with the elements of the system. There is also increasing recognition of the urgent need for systematic procedures and criteria for testing the safety of ITSs prior to large-scale market penetration.

Vehicles are now equipped with a number of warning and safety devices to prevent injury-causing accidents (Nanthavanij, Yenradee, & Techapichetvanich, 1995). Standard safety devices can be divided into two groups: passive systems, which act without any human interaction (e.g., airbags), and active systems, which are supposed to be dependent on human action and/or regulation (e.g., noncontact obstacle sensors). The use of a new intelligent safety feature not only provides an effective warning approach but also helps to control critical situations. For example, braking and steering are required when avoiding an obstacle. The antilock braking system keeps the vehicle under the driver's control as the wheels go on turning, even in the event of extreme braking. However, it has been shown that in order for this safety device to be effective, drivers should know how it works (Priez, Petit, Tarriere, Dittmar, & Vernet-Maury, 1992). As action (braking and steering) is associated with the functioning of the safety system, drivers should adapt their activation (physiological arousal) and their vigilance (focusing attention) to the surrounding context--a critical situation involving collision avoidance. With or without safety systems, crashes will be difficult to avoid if drivers' behavior is not carefully adapted.

Of the various roles for ITSs, that of an assistance system during bus docking should be evaluated. Parking aids that are becoming available or are soon to come on the market should be placed in the category of safety systems involving human-machine interaction. They use cameras or infrared techniques and are especially helpful to persons with mobility problems (e.g., to enable them to get onto the bus easily). Such assistance involves several means for longitudinal and lateral control of the bus. Reduced workload is thought to result from using such navigation systems, helping the driver to maneuver by assisting him or her in monitoring the proper functioning of the system (Farber, 2000). However, the true impact of the system on drivers must be studied by demonstrating the particular importance of the specific layout of the human-machine interface, in order to guarantee high acceptance and minimal distraction from traffic.

A tight-maneuver precision dock system positions a bus or commercial vehicle precisely in relation to the curb or loading board. The driver maneuvers the vehicle into the loading or boarding area and then shifts to automation. Sensors continuously determine the lateral distance in relation to the end of the vehicle loading/boarding area. The driver can override the system at any time by braking or steering and is expected to monitor the situation and take emergency action if necessary (e.g., if a pedestrian steps in front of the vehicle). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Assessing Workload through Physiological Measurements in Bus Drivers Using an Automated System during Docking
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.