The European Union: Eastern Enlargement and Taxation

By Van Der Hoek, M. Peter | Atlantic Economic Journal, June 2004 | Go to article overview

The European Union: Eastern Enlargement and Taxation


Van Der Hoek, M. Peter, Atlantic Economic Journal


Introduction

It is quite common to talk about Europe, the European Union, Western Europe, Central and Eastern Europe, and South-Eastern Europe. However, it is not quite clear what most of these terms mean. The exception is the European Union, which is not a geographical notion but a well-defined political concept resulting from its membership of 25 countries (as of May 1, 2004). The other terms--Europe, Western Europe, Central and Eastern Europe, and South-Eastern Europe--are geographic rather than political in character and are less clear than they seem at first sight. For example, Israeli and Turkish football clubs participate in European soccer competitions. The Eurovision Song Festival also includes participants from Israel and Turkey. This suggests that Israel and Turkey are European countries. However, it seems likely that many people would not consider these countries part of Europe. Yet, Turkey is a candidate-member country of the European Union even though most of it's territory is located in Asia [van der Hoek, 2003a, p. 44].

The European Union has not defined its limits in geographical terms. The Treaty on European Union says in Article 49 that "any European State which respects the principles set out in Article 6(1) may apply to become a member of the Union." Article 6(1) states that "the Union is founded on the principles of liberty, democracy, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and the rule of law, principles which are common to the Member States." The European Union has granted Bulgaria, Romania, and Turkey the status of candidate-member countries. Bulgaria and Romania are expected to join the European Union in 2007, whereas Turkey hopes to receive a preliminary entry year by the end of 2004. If so, this will most likely be a year in the mid 2010s. Moreover, the European Union has identified the countries of the West Balkans region, including former Yugoslav republics, as potential candidates.

The Copenhagen European Council has made the principles set out in Article 6(1) of the Treaty on European Union more concrete. These so-called Copenhagen criteria comprise a political criterion, an economic criterion, and the ability to take on the acquis communautaire:

1) Stability of institutions guaranteeing democracy, the rule of law, human rights, and respect for and protection of minorities;

2) The existence of a functioning market economy, as well as the ability to cope with competitive pressures and market forces within the EU;

3) The ability to take on the obligations of membership, including adherence to the aims of political, economic, and monetary union.

Enlarging the European Union

Following the definition used by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), this paper refers to regions in Europe that comprise the following countries: Central and Eastern Europe: Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia; South-Eastern Europe: Albania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Macedonia, and Romania; Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania; and Newly Independent States: the 12 former Soviet Republics excluding the Baltic States.

Table 1 shows some basic characteristics of the ten accession countries in Central and Eastern Europe in the mid 1990s, that is, at the time of their applications for European Union membership. Their combined population amounted to 28 percent of that of the European Union of 15 member states. However, their combined GDP amounted to only 4 percent of that of the EU-15 at current prices, or 9 percent at purchasing power standards. GDP per capita in the applicant countries amounted to 13 percent at current prices or 32 percent at purchasing power standards. Thus, the applicant countries are poor relative to European Union member states. Though their population is sizeable, their economic weight is very small.

Figure 1 shows GDP levels in the individual accession countries in Central and Eastern Europe and South-Eastern Europe relative to the European Union average, both in 1995 and 2002.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

The European Union: Eastern Enlargement and Taxation
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.