The Effects of Discrimination and Constraints Negotiation on Leisure Behavior of American Muslims in the Post-September 11 America

By Livengood, Jennifer S.; Stodolska, Monika | Journal of Leisure Research, Spring 2004 | Go to article overview

The Effects of Discrimination and Constraints Negotiation on Leisure Behavior of American Muslims in the Post-September 11 America


Livengood, Jennifer S., Stodolska, Monika, Journal of Leisure Research


The events of the September 11, 2001 had a profound effect on average "mainstream" Americans and also on many members of ethnic groups that call America their home. In the days, weeks and months following the events, anger of millions of Americans turned against those who were perceived to be responsible for or in some way associated with the individuals who had hijacked airliners and crashed them into New York's World Trade Center, the Pentagon, and a field in Pennsylvania. Since all 19 hijackers were identified as Muslims, anger of many Americans turned against members of this ethno-religious group. Muslims in the Middle East, Afghanistan, as well as American Muslims, many of whom resided in this country for generations, became the object of resentment and often outright hate. Public anger was directed not only against Arabs and/or Muslims, but also against anyone who could remotely be associated with people from the Middle East including Indians, Pakistanis, and people from South East Asia.

Muslims had been the targets of discriminatory acts long before the events of September 11. Ongoing conflicts with Arab countries, military engagement of the United States in some, mostly Muslim states, and past terrorist attacks contributed to unfavorable attitudes many members of the American public shared toward this ethnic group. In the 1990s Arabs and Muslims in general were the target of increased discrimination including profiling at universities and in other public domains (Nimer, 2001). Scientific and media sources have reported discrimination in the job market (Nimer, 2001; Sachs, 2002), schools (Associated Press, 2001; Nimer, 2001), public settings (Sachs, 2002), homes (Khan, 2002), and personal businesses (Walkup, 2001). Similarly to other ethno-religious groups, difficulties experienced by Muslims in other life domains have been widely researched and documented. However, discrimination encountered in leisure settings appears to have been completely overlooked. This lack of research is particularly unfortunate given the fact that treatment received during leisure engagements significantly contributes to a person's quality of life and has an effect on the adjustment of ethnic groups in the new country (Rublee & Shaw, 1991; Stodolska & Jackson, 1998).

It is well established in the literature that members of ethnic and racial groups are the targets of persistent discrimination in leisure settings (Blahna & Black, 1993; Floyd & Gramann, 1995; Gobster & Delgado, 1993). Research studies began to systematically trace, report, analyze, and explain the incidents of discrimination in leisure in the late 1980s (West, 1989) and the continued interest in this topic has been present in our literature ever since. Considering the fact that other ethnic groups have been shown to experience negative treatment in leisure settings, and that Muslims have been known to experience significant difficulties in other domains of their life, it seems unlikely that their free time activities would be free from encounters with discrimination. Consequently, the objectives of this study were twofold. (1) First, we intend to give an account of the discrimination American Muslims have been subjected to during the first year following the events of September 11 and to establish how these experiences have affected their leisure behavior. (2) Second, our study is intended to analyze people's responses to discrimination and the strategies that American Muslims use to overcome adversities and to deal with obstacles to their leisure participation.

The goal of this research was to focus on experiences of people who could be singled out as members of the "target group" (i.e. someone of the same ethnicity/religious background as people involved in the September 11 attacks). Evidence points to public resentment against a broad range of minority groups that extends beyond those associated with Middle Eastern geographic region or with the Islamic faith. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

The Effects of Discrimination and Constraints Negotiation on Leisure Behavior of American Muslims in the Post-September 11 America
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.