Intra-Individual Variability in State Anxiety and Self-Confidence in Elite Golfers

By Hassmen, Peter; Raglin, John S. et al. | Journal of Sport Behavior, September 2004 | Go to article overview

Intra-Individual Variability in State Anxiety and Self-Confidence in Elite Golfers


Hassmen, Peter, Raglin, John S., Lundqvist, Carolina, Journal of Sport Behavior


Precompetition anxiety levels are assumed to moderate athletic performance. Unfortunately, cross-sectional and nomothetic research designs have often shown non-significant findings; intra-individual variability may be a contributing factor. The extent of variability in precompetition anxiety and self-confidence responses as related to golf performance and trait measures were therefore examined using an idiographic approach. Individual patterns of variability were found for Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety and Self-Confidence scores yielded prior to the games played. Variability in Somatic Anxiety was significantly related to variability in golf performance. Players low in anxiety variability scored significantly higher on Private Self-Consciousness. The findings suggest the influence of anxiety and self-confidence on performance may be better understood when trait characteristics of the individual are also considered.

**********

Sport psychology researchers have assumed that an individual's anxiety level experienced immediately before a competition (i.e., state anxiety) has a moderating effect on subsequent athletic performance (cf. Martens, 1971). Early research suggested the relation between anxiety and sport performance is best described by an inverted-U function (Landers & Boutcher, 2001; Sonstroem & Bernardo, 1982). Reviews of both general and sport anxiety related literature have, however, failed to find support for the inverted-U hypothesis (Gould & Krane, 1992; Gould & Udry, 1994; Hardy, 1990; Jones, 1995; Naatanen, 1973; Neiss, 1988).

One of the primary criticisms of the inverted-U hypothesis and other traditional models is they do not account for individual differences in anxiety responses often observed in athletes (Fazey & Hardy, 1988; Jones, 1995; Raglin, 1992). This lack of efficacy has led to the development of sport specific explanations of anxiety and athletic performance. Theoretical approaches such as Hardy's Catastrophe Model (1990, 1996), Hanin's Individualized Zones of Optimal Functioning Model (IZOF, 1978, 1997), and Kerr's Reversal theory (1990, 1997) all explicitly incorporate the concept of individual differences. Although these models are somewhat different conceptually, each indicates that the optimal level of anxiety for performance can vary considerably across athletes.

While mounting evidence indicates athletes in many sports vary significantly in the level of anxiety that benefits performance (Raglin & Hanin, 2000; Turner & Raglin, 1996), the reasons for this variability remain poorly understood. Indeed, a primary criticism of the IZOF model is that it provides no explanation for why comparably skilled athletes competing in the same sport would vary in their precompetition anxiety responses (Gould & Tuffey, 1996). A related issue that has received little attention is intra-individual variability of precompetition anxiety responses (Gould, Greenleaf, & Krane, 2002). Not only do athletes differ from one another in the level of anxiety experienced before a given competition, they also are likely to exhibit differences in the range of variability of precompetition anxiety across competitions. Some athletes may be consistent in precompetition anxiety values (e.g., either all low, medium, or high) while others may differ considerably from competition to competition (Raglin & Hanin, 2000). In cases where the variation in anxiety intensity from competition to competition is narrow, it is likely that the net impact of anxiety on performance would be minimized, whereas anxiety is likely to be a more influential factor in athletes displaying wide variability in anxiety. Unfortunately, research to date has been largely limited to one or two assessments of precompetition anxiety and there has been an absence of work in which precompetition states are assessed repeatedly throughout an entire competitive season, despite the call for such research (e. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Intra-Individual Variability in State Anxiety and Self-Confidence in Elite Golfers
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.