Safe Swimming: How to Develop a Site-Specific Drowning Prevention Program in Your Aquatic Facility

By Palmer, Lynn | Parks & Recreation, February 2005 | Go to article overview

Safe Swimming: How to Develop a Site-Specific Drowning Prevention Program in Your Aquatic Facility


Palmer, Lynn, Parks & Recreation


It is crucial for aquatic facility and pool operators to understand the risks associated with aquatics. This is relevant to all pools including residential pools, lodging industry pools, public and private pools. It is essential that owners/operators identify, anticipate and evaluate the risks relevant to their facilities and circumstances so they can effectively manage for these risks.

Risk management is not just the duty of management staff, but should include all personnel and be incorporated into all facets of pool operations in order to be effective. For staffed pools this includes any person that has a responsibility to the pool, and for residential and unstaffed pools this may include family members or responsible users. Aquatic facilities can not survive without risk management planning that includes developing a specific drowning prevention program.

Following motor vehicle accidents, drowning is the second leading cause of accidental death in children between the ages of 0-14 in the United States, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Additionally, for every drowning, there are four hospitalized near-drownings and 11 treated near-drownings. A study by the Consumer Product Safety Commission in 1980 estimated that 69 percent of children younger than 5 years of age were under the supervision of one or both parents at the time of drowning. Furthermore, 77 percent of these children had been unsupervised for less than five minutes prior to the drowning incident. Since a child may be completely submerged and unconscious in 30 seconds or less, aquatic professionals stress constant supervision. However, supervision alone is not a satisfactory prevention strategy, as lapses in supervision occur.

One approach to addressing this problem is the implementation of programs that effectively manage for risks by reducing the number of submersion

incidents and preventing deaths by drowning. Many experts and organizations dedicated to aquatic safety, believe that drowning is preventable by applying targeted prevention strategies. Since one of the responsibilities of a pool owner/operator is to minimize and prevent submersion injuries and drowning, an accident prevention strategy or a site-specific drowning prevention program can be one part of a multifaceted approach in aquatic risk management planning.

By successfully managing risks and developing a site-specific drowning prevention program, managers or pool owners can reduce fatal accidents at any aquatic facility. Ultimately, these strategies require a comprehensive and cooperative effort from all staff, family members and pool users. Furthermore, experts recommend many layers of protection because one single strategy is not likely to prevent all submersion deaths and injuries. Hence a site-specific drowning prevention program would incorporate essential elements of risk management planning and provide layers of protection.

Though it is generally believed that lifeguards are responsible for aquatic safety and reducing risks and the likelihood of a favorable outcome from a drowning incident is increased with the presence of lifeguards, many swimming facilities exist that do not employ staff or lifeguards. It should also be noted that 90 to 95 percent of drowning incidents occur in unstaffed or residential pools, according to the Foundation for Aquatic Injury Prevention.

Although the critical components of a drowning prevention program listed below are for residential swimming pools, these components can be transferred to and utilized by any swimming facility. Respondents placed importance on a consistent set of criteria throughout the study and continually identified constant supervision, water safety and swimming lessons, fences with self latching and locking gates, rescue equipment, and CPR certification as critical components. By combining these components according to the needs of a swimming facility, a site-specific drowning prevention program will be designed that minimizes risk and provides layers of protection against risk. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Safe Swimming: How to Develop a Site-Specific Drowning Prevention Program in Your Aquatic Facility
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.