Effect of Socioeconomic Status on General and At-Risk High School Boys' Willingness to Accept Same-Sex Peers with LD

By Plata, Maximino; Trusty, Jerry | Adolescence, Spring 2005 | Go to article overview

Effect of Socioeconomic Status on General and At-Risk High School Boys' Willingness to Accept Same-Sex Peers with LD


Plata, Maximino, Trusty, Jerry, Adolescence


Socioeconomic status is a powerful agent in creating the cultural environment in which individuals are reared. According to Gollnick and Chinn (1998), the cultural environment provides processes through which expectations are learned about such roles as mother, husband, student, teacher, banker, plumber, or politician. Culturally bound experiences become the lens through which others' performances, behaviors, beliefs, and appearance are judged. They are guidelines used to formulate values, perceptions, and beliefs about concepts such as family, loyalty, honesty, pride, love of country, what is moral or immoral, prestige, and status. Cumulative experiences in a cultural environment guide the way individuals think, feel, and act. Ultimately, an individual's experience repertoire is an anchor to new social, emotional, and cognitive learning episodes and the basis for the degree of effort applied in learning new tasks.

Weinger (2000) found that by age five, low- and middle-income children's assessments and prejudices about wealth were firmly fixed. Furthermore, Brantlinger (1991) found that low-income adolescents' perception about wealth resulted in more negative descriptions of low-income groups than of high-income groups. Low-income adolescents were also reluctant to identify with low-status groups. In a related study (Tarrant (2002) found that adolescents assigned higher ratings to members of the "in-group" than to members of the "out-group" regardless of circumstance. Lott (2002) found that the main response toward poor people by those who are not poor is one of distancing. Distancing is suggested as one of several factors in operationally defining discrimination. In sum, the results of these studies show the influence of socioeconomic background on an individual's perceptions of others and the role it plays in determining the degree of interaction desired with individuals from differing income groups.

Studies have also shown relationships between socioeconomic status and characteristics such as intelligence (Terman, Baldwin, & Bronson, 1925) academic achievement (Brown, 1990; Caldas & Bankston, 1997), test performance (Stricker & Rock, 1995), language development (Gonzalez, 2001), educational expectations (Trusty, 1999), the formation of social group networks (Bagwell, Coie, Terry, & Lochman, 2000), to name a few. In short, there is overwhelming evidence that socioeconomic status impacts quality of students' social and cognitive development, decisions they make, and ultimately, the quality of task performance.

When groups are formed, research points out that students associate themselves with peers that have comparable characteristics such as academic skills (Schwarzwald & Hoffman, 1993; Wentzel & Caldwell, 1997), social and interpersonal skills (Akers, Jones, & Coyl, 1998; Farmer & Farmer, 1996; Urberg, Degirmencioglu, Tolson, 1998; Werner,& Parmelee, 1979), and common interests (Kindermann, 1993; Serreno, 1980). Peer groups play a critical psychosocial role for students by providing a valuable network through which identity and self-esteem are developed (Newman & Newman, 1976). The peer group can be a source of emotional support during emotional and cognitive adjustment (Jackson & Bosma, 1992; Palmonari, Pombeni, & Kirchler, 1990) and have a positive effect on a group member's well being (Brown & Lohr, 1987). In addition, peer groups influence its members' social behavior, attitudes, and academic adjustment (Adler & Adler, 1995; Heiman, 2000). In short, the peer group is an essential avenue that assists individuals' social development.

Because peer groups are formed on the basis of common criteria, it may be difficult for students with atypical characteristics, such as learning disabilities, to be accepted by existing peer groups. To date, research on social status of adolescents with LD indicates that these students do not fare well in mainstream settings (Bender, 1987; Ferguson, 1999; Hendrickson, Shokoohi-Yekta, Hamre-Nietupski, & Gable, 1996; Perlmutter, Crocker, Dordray, & Garstecki, 1983). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Effect of Socioeconomic Status on General and At-Risk High School Boys' Willingness to Accept Same-Sex Peers with LD
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.