Motivational Qualities of Instructional Strategies and Computer Use for Mathematics Teaching in Japan and the United States: Results from the TIMSS 1999 Assessment

By House, J. Daniel | International Journal of Instructional Media, Winter 2005 | Go to article overview

Motivational Qualities of Instructional Strategies and Computer Use for Mathematics Teaching in Japan and the United States: Results from the TIMSS 1999 Assessment


House, J. Daniel, International Journal of Instructional Media


There is considerable interest in instructional practices and mathematics achievement for students in Asia. Recent assessments have indicated that students in several Asian countries, such as Japan, Hong Kong, Korea, and Singapore, have tended to score above international averages (Kelly, Mullis, & Martin, 2000; Mullis, Martin, Gonzalez, Gregory, Garden, O'Connor, Chrostowski, & Smith, 2000). In order to explore possible explanations for these achievement differences, an international study has been conducted to examine cultural factors such as mathematics curriculum and content, student characteristics and learning styles, mathematical goals, and instructional practices (International Commission on Mathematical Instruction, 2000). Leung (2001) has considered East Asian approaches to mathematics and suggested that Asian students have been encouraged to use memorization as part of the learning process, have been expected to understand that success is dependent upon hard work and studying, and that Eastern cultural values tend to result in whole-class teaching and learning. Geist (2000) identified seven characteristics of mathematicians and found that instruction in Japan focused on learning concepts and developing multiple solutions for problems. Further, observations of classrooms in Japan indicated that students engaged in problem solving activities first, followed by explanation by the teacher, and then reflection by students about their problem solving efforts (Whitman, Nohda, & Lai, 1997). It has been noted that elementary-school students in Japan spend extensive time on single problems in order to produce multiple solutions and to reflect on the learning that has occurred (Sawada, 1999). Similarly, teachers in Japanese schools provided students with more extended explanations in their mathematics classrooms (Perry, 2000). Finally, comparisons from the initial TIMSS assessment indicated that eighth-grade mathematics instruction in Japan covered fewer topics, but in greater detail, than was the case in United States mathematics classrooms (National Research Council, 1999). These findings indicate that there are cultural differences in expectations for student achievement in mathematics and in classroom practices and instructional strategies.

The Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) represents the most comprehensive international assessment of educational contexts and student achievement yet conducted (Schmidt & Cogan, 1996). Several studies have examined data from the TIMSS assessment to identify instructional practices associated with student achievement. For instance, students in Japan who showed higher mathematics achievement test scores also reported that their teachers more frequently gave them homework, they more frequently used things from everyday life when solving mathematics problems, and that their teachers more frequently showed them how to do mathematics problems (House, 2001). Similarly, students in Hong Kong who indicated that they more often did experiments or practical investigations in class and that their teachers more frequently gave demonstrations of experiments tended to earn higher science test scores (House, 2000b). Findings from the TIMSS Videotape Classroom Study indicated that eighth-grade students in Japan spent considerably more time on inventing and developing multiple problem-solving strategies to geometry problems than did students in the United States (Stigler, Gallimore, & Hiebert, 2000) while a case study of a geometry lesson in Japan identified specific instructional activities designed to enhance student attention and interest that were incorporated into computer-based teaching for mathematics (House, 2002). Results from numerous countries indicated that several factors were consistently associated with student achievement, including the amount of time spent on mathematics homework, educational aspirations of the students, and being in an orderly classroom (Martin, Mullis, Gregory, Hoyle, & Shen, 2000). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Motivational Qualities of Instructional Strategies and Computer Use for Mathematics Teaching in Japan and the United States: Results from the TIMSS 1999 Assessment
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.