Using Video to Support Teachers' Ability to Notice Classroom Interactions

By Sherin, Miriam Gamoran; van Es, Elizabeth A. | Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, Autumn 2005 | Go to article overview

Using Video to Support Teachers' Ability to Notice Classroom Interactions


Sherin, Miriam Gamoran, van Es, Elizabeth A., Journal of Technology and Teacher Education


This article examines how video can be used to help preservice and inservice teachers learn to notice what is happening in their classrooms. Data from two related studies are presented. In the first study, middle-school mathematics teachers met monthly in a video club in which they shared and discussed excerpts of videos from their classrooms. In the second study, a group of preservice high-school mathematics and science teachers used a new video analysis support tool called VAST to examine excerpts of video from their own and others' classrooms. In both cases, there were changes over time in what the teachers noticed and in how they interpreted these events. This research adds to the theoretical understanding of the role of video in teacher education and also provides direction for the development of new forms of video-based professional development activities.

**********

Video has become an important tool for working with both novice and veteran teachers. This is particularly true in mathematics and science education, where many new video-based and multimedia programs have recently been developed. In some cases, video is used to demonstrate new ways that teachers can explore specific content areas with students (e.g., Hatfield & Bitter, 1994). In other cases, video is used to illustrate particular classroom processes such as discourse or problem solving (Corwin, Price, & Storeygard, 1996). Common to both of these approaches is an emphasis on helping teachers learn what to do in the classroom.

In contrast, this research examines how video can help teachers learn to notice, that is, to develop new ways of "seeing" what is happening in their classrooms. This approach is based on the assertion that the ability to notice is critical in the context of current mathematics and science education reforms that require teachers to make pedagogical decisions in the midst of instruction (American Association for the Advancement of Science [AAAS], 1993; National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [NCTM], 2000). For example, teachers are supposed to pay close attention to the ideas that students raise and then use these ideas as the basis for the lesson-in-progress. This adaptive style of instruction calls for teachers to be skilled at noticing and interpreting classroom interactions. Even veteran teachers who may already be experienced at seeing what is happening in their classrooms need to find ways to focus their attention on new aspects of classroom interactions (Smith, 1996).

This article reports on two related studies that used video to support teachers' ability to notice and interpret classroom interactions. In both cases, changes took place in what the teachers noticed and in how they interpreted these events. This research adds to our theoretical understanding of the role of video in teacher education and also provides direction for the development of new forms of video-based professional development activities.

THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES

The nature of expertise has been the focus of research for many years. From this research, key features of expert thought and action have been identified. For example, experts have well-structured knowledge systems in their area of expertise, as well as the ability to use that knowledge flexibly (Schoenfeld, 1985). In addition, experts typically make use of automated responses to tasks with which they have become familiar, easing the cognitive load for these tasks (Greeno & Simon, 1988). Experts also have the ability to recognize complexities within situations that they examine (Goodwin, 1994). Thus, rather than focusing on superficial aspects of a task, experts tend to focus on substantive issues and meaningful patterns (Chi, Feltovich, & Glasser, 1981).

In studying teaching expertise in particular, many of these same issues have been investigated. For example, a great deal of research has explored the organization of teacher knowledge and how this knowledge is accessed (Ball, 1991; Ma, 1999; Putnam, 1987; Sherin, 2002). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Using Video to Support Teachers' Ability to Notice Classroom Interactions
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.