Industrializing Academic Knowledge in Taiwan: The Attitudes of Taiwan's Universities toward Transferring and Commercializing Academic Knowledge Have Shifted to a More "Scientific-Economic" Orientation since New Legislation Was Enacted in 1999, a Survey Reveals

By Chang, Yuan-Chieh; Chen, Ming-Huei et al. | Research-Technology Management, July-August 2005 | Go to article overview

Industrializing Academic Knowledge in Taiwan: The Attitudes of Taiwan's Universities toward Transferring and Commercializing Academic Knowledge Have Shifted to a More "Scientific-Economic" Orientation since New Legislation Was Enacted in 1999, a Survey Reveals


Chang, Yuan-Chieh, Chen, Ming-Huei, Hua, Mingshu, Yang, Phil Y., Research-Technology Management


Inspired by the United States' Bayh-Dole Act of 1980, Taiwan enacted the Science and Technology Basic Law (STBL) in 1999. One of the STBL's principal mandates was to clarify the ownership of intellectual property rights (IPR) that are generated from government funding research to academia. It was expected that granting IPR ownership to universities would accelerate the commercialization of new technologies and promote national/ regional economic and innovative activities.

The government also enacted the Guidelines for Ownership and Utilization of S&T Research and Development Results in 2000. The Guidelines stipulate that universities need to pay only 20 percent of any licensing income to government funding agencies. Specifically, they call for distributing 40, 40 and 20 percent respectively of licensing income and royalties to implementing institutions (e.g., universities), inventors and government funding agencies.

Furthermore, the National Science Council (NSC) is the leading academic funding organization in charge of promoting industry-academia collaboration in Taiwan. In order to encourage academia to become involved in patenting activities, the NSC implemented the Principles of Management and Promotion of Academia R&D Results in 2002. With NT$28 million from the NSC, ten technology transfer/licensing offices were established in public research institutes by 2003 (1).

The Principles also committed to reimburse 70 percent of the patenting expenditures, including patent application and maintenance lees. This will be reduced to 50 percent in 2005.

Five Survey Conclusions

Although institutional reforms have burgeoned in many newly STBL-enacted economies (e.g., Japan, Korea and Taiwan), the systematic evaluation of the industrialization of academic knowledge has not been thoroughly investigated. This includes activities of universities in patenting, licensing and creating new firms.

Consequently, in 2003, APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation) and the Science and Technology Policy Research Center (STPRC) of Taiwan's National Science Council funded a survey of 122 Taiwanese universities to fill the gap (2). The questionnaire survey investigated five dimensions of industrializing knowledge in the universities, namely: 1) build-up of an intellectual property/ technology transfer infrastructure: 2) barriers to technology transfer; 3) mechanisms for university-industry partnerships; 4) patenting and licensing activities; and 5) firm incubation.

In order to assess the performance following enactment of the 1999 STBL, the survey sought information from the pre-STBL period (1997-1998) and the post-STBL period (1999-2000). Table 1 lists the survey questions. The questionnaires were addressed to the directors/ managers of the central administration who were in charge of technology transfer, commercialization and business incubation. Fifty-eight universities responded (48 percent response rate). Five principal conclusions were drawn from the survey results and described below.

1. Institutional innovation is the starting point for industrializing academic knowledge. It provides a favorable incentive system and facilitates organizational innovation across academic institutions.

The institutional reforms provide an open environment in which universities can create new organizational forms that are good for economic creation and academic entrepreneurial activities. The establishment of an intellectual property infrastructure paves the way for increasing academic awareness of the exploitation of research results. The Intellectual Property Offices (IPOs), the Technology Transfer Offices (TTOs), incubator centers, or their equivalent have become widely established for the purpose of technology protection, transfer and commercialization.

The survey shows that the build-up of an intellectual property infrastructure is no longer the privilege of a few elite research universities.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Industrializing Academic Knowledge in Taiwan: The Attitudes of Taiwan's Universities toward Transferring and Commercializing Academic Knowledge Have Shifted to a More "Scientific-Economic" Orientation since New Legislation Was Enacted in 1999, a Survey Reveals
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.