Is Terminology of the World Health Organization Important?

By Sherrill, Claudine | Palaestra, Summer 2005 | Go to article overview

Is Terminology of the World Health Organization Important?


Sherrill, Claudine, Palaestra


Are you still using such terms as normal, handicapped, and handicapping? Do you still assess capability and performance without regard for context and environment? Do you consider disability as all individual thing? If so, then the latest World Health Organization (WHO, 2000) documents have made little impact on your thinking. Is this because of ignorance or intention? Do you believe that nations should share a common vocabulary in relation to health conditions or that each nation should create its own terminology? Why?

The World Health Organization (WHO) periodically issues documents based on international input from many disciplines that update nomenclature for persons with disabilities and explain cultural and sociological changes that justify new thinking. The most recent of these documents are the International Classification of Impairments. Disabilities, and Handicaps (ICIDH, 1980, 1995) and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability. and Health (ICF, 2000). The purpose of this Issues article is to acquaint readers with ICIDH and ICF and to stimulate critical thinking about them in relation to physical education and recreation.

ICIDH (1980. 1995) is cited in some textbooks. Most often, however, international works are not mentioned, and no distinction is made among the terms impairment, disability, and handicap. For example, ICIDH is the source of the following (now outdated) definitions: impairment, any disturbance of, or interference with, the normal structure and function of the body; disability, the loss or reduction of functional ability and/or activity; and handicap, a condition produced by societal and environmental barriers. ICIDH (1980, 1995) presented a conceptual framework of disablement as a linear process in which impairment (organ level) could lead to disability (person level), which could lead to handicap (social level). Although called a disablement model, it was essentially a medical model that emphasized defects (Schumacher, 1999). Two decades, however, have changed beliefs tremendously (Sherrill, 2004; Ustun, 2003). In particular, reference to normal in the definition of impairment has been much criticized.

The ICF (2000) was designed as an interactive "components of health" biopsychosocial classification rather than the linear "'consequences of diseases" or "risk factors" classification taken by the ICIDH. As such, the ICE model can be applied to persons with and without disabilities. Figure 1 depicts the main components of the ICF, emphasizing that disability should be considered from an ecological perspective with primary attention given to the totality of personal and environmental interactions that contribute to activity limitations and participation restrictions.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

The main components are body structure and function (referring to absence or presence of impairment), activities (referring to no limitations or limitations), participation (referring to no restrictions or restrictions), environmental factors (referring to societal affordances, which may be physical, social, attitudinal, or aspirational) and personal factors (referring to such variables as age, gender, ethnicity, fitness, habits, and past and current experiences).

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Is Terminology of the World Health Organization Important?
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.