Asthma and Air Pollution: What's Happening in NIEHS Extramural Research

Environmental Health Perspectives, January 2005 | Go to article overview

Asthma and Air Pollution: What's Happening in NIEHS Extramural Research


Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease with symptoms including reversible airway constriction, chest tightness, cough, and wheezing. The incidence of asthma is increasing and accounts for nearly 500,000 hospitalizations, 2 million emergency department visits, and 5,000 deaths annually in the United States. Asthma develops most commonly in children, although recent data suggest an increase in new cases among adults and the elderly.

An individual's risk for developing asthma is defined by a complex interaction of environmental exposures and hereditary factors. Risk factors include atopy or a predisposition to a Th2 immune response, diminished childhood microbe exposure, age at time of critical exposure, obesity, urbanization, and low socioeconomic status. In addition, numerous epidemiological studies have linked air pollution to exacerbation of acute asthma, increased use of asthma medication, increased school and work absence, and increased hospitalization. The NIEHS, recognizing these links and the persistence and continuing increase in air pollution globally, supports numerous research investigations that may provide keys to improved prevention and clinical management of asthma.

Toxicological research has characterized several components of air pollution, including particulate matter (PM), gaseous elements such as ozone, microbial products including endotoxin, heavy metals, and indoor and outdoor allergens such as house dust mite allergen and ragweed. Current NIEHS-sponsored extramural research targets pulmonary injury and dysfunction consequent to these exposures.

For example, researchers are examining the cellular and molecular pathways involved in oxidative stress induced by organic and metal-containing PM. Oxidative stress is a component of the inflammatory response and of airway hyperreactivity and asthma exacerbation. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Asthma and Air Pollution: What's Happening in NIEHS Extramural Research
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.