Local Variations in CO and Particulate Air Pollution and Adverse Birth Outcomes in Los Angeles County, California, USA

By Wilhelm, Michelle; Ritz, Beate | Environmental Health Perspectives, September 2005 | Go to article overview

Local Variations in CO and Particulate Air Pollution and Adverse Birth Outcomes in Los Angeles County, California, USA


Wilhelm, Michelle, Ritz, Beate, Environmental Health Perspectives


We extended our previous analyses of term low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth to 1994-2000, a period of declining air pollution levels in the South Coast Air Basin. We speculated that the effects we observed previously for carbon monoxide, particulate matter < 10 [micro]m in aerodynamic diameter (P[M.sub.10]), and traffic density were attributable to toxins sorbed to primary exhaust particles. Focusing on CO, P[M.sub.10], and particulate matter < 2.5 [micro]m in aerodynamic diameter (P[M.sub.2.5]), we examined whether varying residential distances from monitoring stations affected risk estimates, because effect attenuation may result from local pollutant heterogeneity inadequately captured by ambient stations. We geocoded home locations, calculated the distance to the nearest air monitors, estimated exposure levels by pregnancy period, and performed logistic regression analyses for subjects living within l-4 mi of a station. For women residing within a 1-mi distance, we observed a 27% increase in risk for high ([greater than or equal to] 75th percentile) first-trimester CO exposures and preterm birth and a 36% increase for high third-trimester pregnancy CO exposures and term LBW. For particles, we observed similar size effects during early and late pregnancy for both term LBW and preterm birth. In contrast, smaller or no effects were observed beyond a 1-mi distance of a residence from a station. Associations between CO and P[M.sub.10] averaged over the whole pregnancy and term LBW were generally smaller than effects for early and late pregnancy. These new results for 1994-2000 generally confirm our previous observations for the period 1989-1993, again linking CO and particle exposures to term LBW and preterm birth. In addition, they confirm our suspicions about having to address local heterogeneity for these pollutants in Los Angeles. Key words: air pollution, epidemiology, low birth weight, preterm birth. doi:10.1289/ehp.7751 available via http://dx.doi.org/[Online 10 May 2005]

**********

Over the past few years, the number of reports linking outdoor air pollution to adverse birth outcomes including intrauterine growth retardation, preterm birth, and perinatal mortality increased considerably (Glinianaia et al. 2004; Maisonet et al. 2004). The fast expansion of this research worldwide was enabled by the existence of air monitoring stations and routinely collected birth certificate information in many populated urban areas. The studies conducted in many different locales and populations agree in one aspect: Outdoor air pollution seems to play some role in determining birth outcomes. Yet the differences in pollutants, outcomes, and pregnancy periods studied make causational interpretations of the observed associations a subject of ongoing debate. Although local monitoring resources and major emission sources may determine choices for pollutants studied, it is time to use all available data as comprehensively as possible and to consider asking some new questions to further expand and eventually integrate our knowledge base.

Our previous work focused on the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) of Southern California and examined adverse birth effects due to air pollution in infants born between 1989 and 1993. Exposure assessment was based on measurements taken at air monitoring stations located throughout the basin. We observed positive associations between average carbon monoxide concentrations during the third trimester of pregnancy and term low birth weight (LBW) (Ritz and Yu 1999) and between concentrations of CO and particulate matter < 10 [micro]m in aerodynamic diameter (P[M.sub.10]) 6 weeks before birth and prematurity (Ritz et al. 2000). We also reported a dose-response relationship between CO concentrations during the second month of pregnancy and cardiac ventricular septal defects and between second-month ozone concentrations and aortic/pulmonary artery and valve anomalies and conotruncal defects (Ritz et al. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Local Variations in CO and Particulate Air Pollution and Adverse Birth Outcomes in Los Angeles County, California, USA
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.