Children's Health and the Environment: A Transatlantic Dialogue

By Landrigan, Philip J.; Tamburlini, Giorgio | Environmental Health Perspectives, October 2005 | Go to article overview

Children's Health and the Environment: A Transatlantic Dialogue


Landrigan, Philip J., Tamburlini, Giorgio, Environmental Health Perspectives


Important steps to protect children against environmental threats to health have been taken over the past decade in both the United States and Europe This progress is based on the shared recognition that infants and children are very different from adults in their exposures and their susceptibility to toxic chemicals and that they therefore require special protections in risk assessment, regulation, and law. But despite this common scientific foundation, developments in children's environmental health (CEH) on the two sides of the Atlantic have been quite different. These contrasting and sometimes complementary advances reflect the differing social, legal, and regulatory cultures of the two continents.

Recognition among policy makers of the unique vulnerability of children had its origins in the United States and dates from the publication in 1993 of the National Research Council (NRC) report Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children (National Research Council 1993). This report found striking differences between children and adults in exposure as well as in susceptibility to toxic chemicals. The report identified large gaps in regulatory practice and called for expansion of toxicologic testing to assess threats to development. It also urged reform of risk assessment and regulation to enhance protection of children. The central contribution of the NRC report was to elevate consideration of the vulnerability of children from the specialized area of pediatrics to the broad realm of national policy formulation.

The recommendations of the NRC report were incorporated into federal policy in the United States in 1996 through the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA), the principal U.S. statute governing use of pesticides (FQPA 1996). The FQPA affirms the unique vulnerability of children. It requires explicit consideration of children in risk assessment and mandates child-protective safety factors in regulation. These principles were reaffirmed in April 1997 in an Executive Order on Children's Environmental Health and Safety requiring all agencies of the U.S. government to consider children's health and safety in all policy decisions (Clinton 1997). This U.S. experience was shared internationally and led to promulgation in May 1997 of the Miami Declaration on Children's Environment Health, a declaration approved unanimously by the environmental ministers of the G-8 nations (Environment Leaders' Summit of the Eight 1997).

In recent years, CEH policy development has slowed in the United States, but the nation continues to make important contributions in research and medical practice. These advances date from 1998, when the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency established a national network of Centers for Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research, now 11 in number. These interdisciplinary centers have matured into strong generators of scientific knowledge, they have produced unprecedented gains in environmental pediatrics, and they have been effective incubators of the careers of young scientists and physicians who will become the next generation of leaders in CEH.

Research in the centers has made important contributions to understanding of the environmental causes of asthma, neurobehavioral disorders, endocrine dysfunction, autism and low-level lead toxicity. Findings from this work are already guiding disease prevention. Reports highlighting the accomplishments of the centers are presented in this issue of Environmental Health Perspectives.

The National Children's Study (NCS) is a second emerging research development in the United States (National Children's Study 2005). The NCS is a prospective epidemiologic study that will follow 100,000 children--a statistically representative sample of all children born in the United States--from (or before) conception to 21 years of age. The goal is to identify the factors in the environment--chemical, biologic, physical, and psychosocial--that alone or in combination influence children's health, growth, development, and risk of disease (Trasande and Landrigan 2004). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Children's Health and the Environment: A Transatlantic Dialogue
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.