Fuel Economies Hold out a Hope for Eastern Europe

By Land, Thomas | Contemporary Review, January 1993 | Go to article overview

Fuel Economies Hold out a Hope for Eastern Europe


Land, Thomas, Contemporary Review


CITY scale energy efficiency demonstration schemes in the Russian Federation may well become the centre piece of a comprehensive global programme to restrict environmental pollution. The demonstrations are part of a three-year programme co-ordinated by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) with help from Western industry to reduce the vast energy efficiency gap dividing Eastern and Central European countries from their Western neighbours. The UN's Economic and Social Council now proposes to widen the programme to make its benefits available worldwide.

Overall energy intensity -- energy consumption per unit of gross national product -- has been much higher in Eastern and Central Europe than in the market economies. According to an authoritative recent estimate published by the Colorado School of Mines, the former Soviet Union alone should be capable of saving in all types of energy the equivalent of a staggering 12m barrels of oil per day.

The 1973 and 1979 oil price rise shocks which have fuelled the development of energy saving techniques and services in the West were not experienced by the Soviet Union and its European satellites. Their industries were protected by their collective wealth in primary energy resources supporting ideologically inspired price subsidies which in turn encouraged inefficiency and pollution.

Today, the same countries are undergoing painful transition to market economies, facing steep energy price rises at the outset of winter as well as widespread consequent hardship and social unrest. But the prospect of substantial energy economies offers them a solution.

Their efforts now to catch up with the energy efficiency standards of the West could indirectly benefit many rapidly industrializing poor countries by providing them with a useful development model.

Eastern and Central Europe faces 'many of the same energy problems as the developing countries', comments the influential Washington-based World Resources Institute in an important recent analysis. 'They too face sharply increasing energy demands, with the resultant increase in debts, capital constraints and growing environmental threats. The efficiency with which energy services are provided is well below that achieved in the rest of the industrialized world, and thus energy efficiency creates attractive opportunities in these countries'.

Increasing the energy efficiency does not mean that energy supplies are reduced nor that energy services are cut off. Rather, the energy required to provide a given service is reduced by improving the efficiency of that service, for example by providing refrigeration with more efficient compressors. This stretches the effect of power supplies.

The energy required to make steel has been two to three times greater in Eastern and Central Europe than in the West. The same is also true for the integrated steel plants in India and China, which are among the biggest steel producers of the developing world. The Institute reckons that with proper design and operation many new industrial plants in both the developing and the transition economies could reduce fuel consumption by 30 per cent or more and achieve even greater savings using state of the art industrial processes.

The energy sector bears a major responsibility for environmental problems in Eastern and Central Europe, concludes a study published by the World Bank. Pollution has reduced life expectancy in Russia from 70.4 years in 1964 to 69.3 years in 1990, adds the first comprehensive report on the environment compiled by Moscow. In some badly polluted cities, life expectancy has shrunk to 44 years.

Probably the most dramatic component of the ECE's Energy Efficiency 2000 programme is the mounting of city-scale demonstration projects in Russia under the authority of the Ministry of Fuel and Energy and the Ministry of Science, Higher Education and Technical Policy.

In Tushino, a Moscow suburb, the housing and service sector buildings serving 100,000 inhabitants will be rehabilitated by the end of 1994. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Fuel Economies Hold out a Hope for Eastern Europe
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.