The Effects of Homework Activities and Teaching Strategies for New Mathematics Topics on Achievement of Adolescent Students in Japan: Results from the TIMSS 1999 Assessment

By House, J. Daniel | International Journal of Instructional Media, Spring 2004 | Go to article overview

The Effects of Homework Activities and Teaching Strategies for New Mathematics Topics on Achievement of Adolescent Students in Japan: Results from the TIMSS 1999 Assessment


House, J. Daniel, International Journal of Instructional Media


There have been a number of efforts to incorporate instructional design principles into mathematics teaching in order to improve student achievement. For instance, an instructional design approach including a mastery learning strategy and incorporating the events of instruction has been used to modify mathematics instruction in Malaysia (Hashim & Tik, 1997). Other research has examined the role of the teacher in mathematics learning and recent findings indicate that students' enjoyment of geometry increased while in an open-ended learning environment where the teacher served as a facilitator (Hannafin, Burruss, & Little, 2001). Instructional design strategies have been employed to develop a video-based series that supports students' ability to solve complex problems and to apply mathematical thinking to other academic subjects (Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt, 1992, 1993). Similarly, instructional software based on models of numerical operations was found to enable students to progress from whole numbers to being able to use fractions (Olive, 2002). Finally, the use of open-ended mathematics problems that included cooperative learning resulted in improved learning and higher confidence levels for at-risk students (Robert, 2002). Consequently, it is apparent that designing effective instructional programs for mathematics is critical for improving student achievement.

Considerable research has examined mathematics classrooms in Japan and several teaching strategies used for mathematics instruction have been identified. For instance, a qualitative analysis of a typical fifth-grade lesson in Japan indicated that an emphasis was placed on the problem-solving processes used by students and errors were discussed in order to examine the breadth of strategies that were used (Sawada, 1999). Further, there was an extensive use of objects that could be manipulated and there was considerable time spent on a single problem in order to provide time for students to examine multiple approaches to problem-solving and to compare multiple solutions (Sawada, 1999). Similarly, seventh-grade students in Japan who were able to exhibit divergent thinking strategies showed a greater number of solutions to open-ended mathematics problems (Imai, 2000). Other studies of mathematics classrooms in Japan have found that extensive time was spent on verbal explanations of specific problems and their solutions (Becker, Silver, Kantowski, Travers, & Wilson, 1990) and that students in Japan spent considerably more time on homework activities than did students in the United States (Stigler, Lee, Lucker, & Stevenson, 1982). In addition, Japanese teachers more often directed their time toward discussing questions with the entire class rather than with individual students (Stigler, Lee, & Stevenson, 1987). Results from the TIMSS Videotape Classroom Study indicated that students in eighth-grade mathematics classrooms in Japan also spent considerably more time on inventing and developing multiple problem-solving solutions to geometry problems than did students in the United States (Stigler, Gallimore, & Hiebert, 2000). Other research suggests that students in Japan tended to provide solutions that used higher levels of mathematical sophistication (Silver, Leung, & Cai, 1995). Finally, cross-cultural comparisons from the initial TIMSS assessment revealed that eighth-grade mathematics instruction in Japan covered fewer topics, but in greater detail, than was the case for United States mathematics classrooms (National Research Council, 1999).

The importance of homework activities for student achievement has been extensively discussed. Research has indicated that, in general, students who spend more time on homework tend to show higher levels of academic achievement (Cooper & Valentine, 2001). For instance, results from the Third International Mathematics Study (TIMSS) indicated that adolescent students in Japan who showed higher mathematics achievement test scores reported that their teachers more frequently gave them homework (House, 2001).

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

The Effects of Homework Activities and Teaching Strategies for New Mathematics Topics on Achievement of Adolescent Students in Japan: Results from the TIMSS 1999 Assessment
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.