Creating Computers That Lie like Humans: Virtual-Reality Interrogation Training

By Lewis, J. Dufton | Canadian Journal of Police and Security Services, September 2004 | Go to article overview
Save to active project

Creating Computers That Lie like Humans: Virtual-Reality Interrogation Training

Lewis, J. Dufton, Canadian Journal of Police and Security Services

Article Reviewed:

McKenzie, F., Scerbo, M., Catanzaro, J., & Phillips, M. (2003). Nonverbal indicators of malicious intent: Affective components for interrogative virtual reality training. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 59(1-2), 237-244.

In light of the current climate in North America and around the world, it has become increasingly important for security personnel to correctly identify suspicious behaviour. Whether working with airport security, as a border guard, or peacekeeping in a foreign country, the ability to correctly recognize and discern between various levels of anger, anxiety, and deception could mean the difference between life and death. As a result, programs aimed at generating more realistic and effective training methods have become of increased interest to researchers and various security agencies, including the U.S. Armed Forces and the Department of Defense.

In their article, McKenzie, Scerbo, Catanzaro, and Phillips (2003) described ongoing research at Old Dominion University (ODU) aimed at advancing virtualreality technology by recreating various affective component behaviours related to nervousness, anger, and deception in virtual environments. The authors stated that the addition of these components to training programs that utilize virtual reality could one-day result in programs designed to prepare and instruct trainees in social interactions scenarios. Although the training program described by the authors involved military checkpoint duty in a foreign country, the authors suggested such technology could one day be applied to training various forms of police and security work (i.e., police interrogation, airport security, and border crossings).

Virtual-reality training programs have begun to be more widely used for various forms of instruction. They are believed to be a more flexible, safer, and potentially less expensive way to train individuals for a variety of tasks (e.g., battlefield weapons use, police negotiations, flight simulation, and hazardous material emergencies). Supporters of virtual-reality training have argued that these types of programs present instructors with an infinite variety of possible scenarios, thus allowing them the opportunity to better customize a training program for the specific needs of the trainees. Further, it has been argued that virtual-reality training environments are much safer than "real life" training environments because more aspects of the physical environment can be controlled (e.g., weather factors, ammunition misfires, or mechanical failures).

The virtual-reality training environment described in this article involves the trainee being on duty at a checkpoint station in a "typical third world urban area". Utilizing motion tracking technology (Ascension Flock of Birds magnetic tracking system) and speech recognition software, the trainee's movements and communications are tracked, captured, and digitally replicated by the system, allowing for high levels of interaction between the human trainee and the virtual agents (computer generated characters) within the scenario. The primary goal of the specific program being developed at ODU is to improve training in the recognition of behavioural cues that are related to possible aggressive, hostile, and deceptive actions. Specifically, the authors' current research involves generating in the virtual agents the many subtle cues associated with deception. In other words, their intention is to advance the realism of the training program by digitally replicating the affective (or emotional) behaviours associated with anger, nervousness, and deception.

In the article, the authors reported that past research in the detection of deception has shown that the majority of the information communicated by suspicious behaviour is not verbal. Non-verbal behaviours such as facial expressions are often the most readily available source of information, however, individuals can train themselves to control and disguise such cues of deception.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
Loading One moment ...
Project items
Cite this article

Cited article

Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited article

Creating Computers That Lie like Humans: Virtual-Reality Interrogation Training


Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

While we understand printed pages are helpful to our users, this limitation is necessary to help protect our publishers' copyrighted material and prevent its unlawful distribution. We are sorry for any inconvenience.
Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.

Are you sure you want to delete this highlight?