Key Milestones in Medicare and Medicaid History, Selected Years: 1965-2003

Health Care Financing Review, Winter 2005 | Go to article overview

Key Milestones in Medicare and Medicaid History, Selected Years: 1965-2003


1965--Medicare and Medicaid were enacted as Title XVIII and Title XIX of the Social Security Act, extending health coverage to almost all Americans age 65 or over (e.g., those receiving retirement benefits from Social Security or the Railroad Retirement Board), and providing health care services to low-income children deprived of parental support, their caretaker relatives, the elderly, the blind, and individuals with disabilities. Seniors were the population group most likely to be living in poverty; about one-half had health insurance coverage.

1966--Medicare was implemented on July 1, serving more than 19 million individuals. Medicaid funding was available to States starting January 1, 1966; the program was phased-in by States over a several year period.

1967--An Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) comprehensive health services benefit for all Medicaid children under age 21 was established.

1972--Medicare eligibility was extended to 2 million individuals under age 65 with long-term disabilities and to individuals with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Medicare was given the authority to conduct demonstration programs.

Medicaid eligibility for elderly, blind, and disabled residents of a State could be linked to eligibility for the newly enacted Federal Supplemental Security Income Program (SSI). Eighteen million individuals were covered by Medicaid.

1977--The Health Care Financing Administration was established by Secretary Califano to administer the Medicare and Medicaid Programs.

1980--Coverage of Medicare home health services was broadened. Medicare supplemental insurance, also called Medigap, was brought under Federal oversight.

1981--Freedom of choice waivers (1915b) and home and community-based care waivers (1915c) were established in Medicaid; States were required to provide additional payments to hospitals treating a disproportionate share of low-income patients (i.e., disproportionate share hospitals [DSH]).

1982--The Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act made it easier and more attractive for health maintenance organizations to contract with the Medicare Program. In addition, the act expanded the agency's quality oversight efforts through peer review organizations.

1983--An inpatient acute hospital prospective payment system (PPS) for the Medicare Program, based on patients' diagnoses, was adopted to replace cost-based payments.

1985--The Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act required hospitals participating in Medicare that operated active emergency rooms to provide appropriate medical screenings and stabilizing treatments.

1986--Medicaid coverage for pregnant women and infants (up to 1 year of age) to 100 percent of the Federal poverty level (FPL) was established as a State option.

1987--The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987 strengthened the protections for residents of nursing homes.

1988--The Medicare Catastrophic Coverage Act (MCCA), which included the most significant changes since enactment of the Medicare Program, improved hospital and skilled nursing facility (SNF) benefits, covered mammography, and included an outpatient prescription drug benefit and a cap on patient liability.

Medicaid coverage for pregnant women and infants to 100 percent FPL was mandated; special eligibility rules were established for institutionalized persons whose spouses remained in the community to prevent "spousal impoverishment," qualified Medicare beneficiary program was established to pay Medicare premiums and cost-sharing charges for beneficiaries with incomes and resources below established thresholds.

1989--The 1988 MCCA was repealed after higher-income elderly protested new premiums. A new Medicare fee schedule for physician and other professional services, a resource-based relative value scale, replaced charge-based payments. Limits were placed on physician balance billing above the new fee schedule. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Key Milestones in Medicare and Medicaid History, Selected Years: 1965-2003
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.