Programming with Style

By York, Sherril L.; Jordan, Debra J. | JOPERD--The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, October 1993 | Go to article overview

Programming with Style


York, Sherril L., Jordan, Debra J., JOPERD--The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance


In a world where recreation programs compete for participants, administrators and programmers constantly strive for new and creative programming ideas, as well as new ways of offering traditional programs. Leisure programming demands that recreation professionals be in tune with the clients they serve, not just with the programs they provide (Edginton, Hanson, & Edginton, 1993; Russell, 1982).

Program administrators and leaders must recognize that while everyone has differences, those differences are neither good nor bad, they are simply different. Too often value and worth are attributed to differences, thus negatively affecting individuals with lesser attributed value. Recreation professionals must consciously acknowledge that each participant is unique. In recognizing participants' unique qualities, program leaders can understand personal styles and preferences manifested through attitudes and behaviors.

This article provides a framework for understanding personal behavioral styles. This framework is based on the DiSC[TM] dimensions of behavior model (figure 1). The DiSC model characterizes behaviors by placing them along two continuums related to speed of pace and task/relationship orientation. After explaining the DiSC model, the implications for programming and program leadership will be discussed.

The DISC model

DiSC is a two-axis, four-factor model that focuses on personal behavior styles in specific situations. The model has been used extensively in business, management, and educational settings and is applicable to recreational settings as well. According to Howe and Carpenter (1985), an understanding of intrinsic and extrinsic psychological factors which include behavioral responses can assist program planners and leaders.

Personal style preferences are flexible and float along a continuum, but there is a core of behaviors with which an individual feels most comfortable and which can be predicted (O'Connor & Merwin, 1988). Program leaders must be aware of and sensitive to participant styles to effectively meet participants' needs.

Using the DiSC model, personal styles can be explained by examining four dimensions that result from the intersection of the two continuums: fast paced/task oriented, fast paced/relationship oriented, slow paced/relationship oriented, and slow paced/task oriented. Based on these dimensions, individuals can be characterized by four basic styles; Dominant, influencing, Steady, and Cautious ("DiSC").

DiSC is patterned after Marston's (1979) two-axis model based on product and process. Marston theorized that human behavior can be studied according to individual actions in different environments. In addition, Kolb's (1984) learning model places learning on two continuums of concrete experience-abstract conceptualization and active experimentation-reflective observation. The theory about differences in the way people learn can be extended to programmers' understanding of thinking and acting. According to Edginton, Hanson, and Edginton (1993), leisure professionals can benefit from knowledge related to the process of learning and factors of motivation (goal-directed behavior).

In recreation settings people exhibit their personal behavior styles through activities, interactions with other participants, and interactions with program leaders. All people - adults and children - will exhibit these behavior preferences.

High "D" (Dominant) participants (fast paced/task oriented). Dominant individuals have a fast-paced approach to life, including leisure time activities. They are task oriented in that they prefer to focus on the task to be accomplished, rather than on others in the group.

The preferred play mode for "D"s is one that is fast paced and alone. Dominant participants need options and alternatives in play activities and the freedom to choose them. People who are high dominant may "rant and rave" when they do not get their way. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Programming with Style
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.