Promoting Social Interaction between Young Children with Hearing Impairments and Their Peers

By Antia, Shirin D.; Kreimeyer, Kathryn H. et al. | Exceptional Children, December-January 1993 | Go to article overview

Promoting Social Interaction between Young Children with Hearing Impairments and Their Peers


Antia, Shirin D., Kreimeyer, Kathryn H., Eldredge, Nancy, Exceptional Children


Social interaction with peers is an important component of the socialization of all young children and eventually becomes a major influence in their lives (Guralnick, 1986). Peer interaction presents children with opportunities to develop and practice communication, such as initiating and maintaining conversations through questions and comments (Nienhuys, Horsborough, & Cross, 1985; Wells, 1981 ). Research conducted with young children with hearing impairments (HI) indicates, however, that their interactions with peers of the same hearing status may be less frequent (Antia, 1982; Higginbotham & Baker, 1981) and of shorter duration (McKirdy & Blank, 1982; Vandell & George, 1981) than the peer interactions of children without HI of the same age. Researchers studying the interaction between children with and without HI in mainstream situations have also reported minimal interaction between the two groups (Arnold & Tremblay, 1979; Levy-Shift & Hoffman, 1985).

Researchers have proposed several reasons for the paucity of interaction between children with HI and their peers. Among these are the social skills of the children with HI; their lack of opportunity to be familiar with peers without HI; and, finally, the barriers that may be created by the inability to adequately communicate with peers, both with and without HI.

La Greca and Mesibov (1979) and Gresham (1982) have suggested that certain social skills are important for successful peer interaction. These skills include greeting behavior, extending and responding to invitations to join peer activities, conversation skills such as asking questions, responding to questions asked by others, and maintaining a conversation. Some evidence exists that young children with HI lack these skills. Research examining the interaction between children with HI and their mothers reveals that brief repetitive exchanges predominate, perhaps allowing these children fewer opportunities than children without HI to develop conversation skills (Henggeler & Cooper, 1983; WedellMonig & Lumley, 1980). McKirdy and Blank (1982) found that preschool dyads with HI were unable to sustain a dialogue and had difficulty responding to peer initiations. Children who lack the skills to engage their peers in social interaction may ultimately discourage further peer initiations and responses, resulting in low peer interaction rates for young children with HI (Higginbotham & Baker, 1981; Vandell & George, 1981).

Another reason for the infrequent interaction between children with and without HI may be the lack of familiarity between them. Children with HI are often placed in mainstream situations that do not promote familiarity with their peers without impairments. They may attend classrooms with 20 or more children without HI; moreover, they may be integrated with several different groups of children without HI and, consequently, do not have the opportunity to interact regularly with the same group of peers. Research conducted within these types of integrated programs indicates that the children with HI interact infrequently with their peers without HI (Antia, 1982). Lederberg, Ryan, and Robbins (1986), however, have suggested that when children both with and without HI are placed in a situation that promotes familiarity, interaction may improve. These authors found that the quality of interaction between children with HI and familiar peers without HI was similar to that of children with HI and familiar peers with HI. Apparently, familiar children had learned to adapt their communication to one another.

Several communication factors may also affect the quantity and quality of interaction among children with and without HI. Brackett and Henniges (1976) found a positive relationship between language-proficiency test scores of children with HI and their frequency of interaction with peers without HI. It is frequently assumed that the mode of communication (speech or sign language) of children with HI and the intelligibility of their speech will affect interaction with peers without HI, though few research data support this assumption. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Promoting Social Interaction between Young Children with Hearing Impairments and Their Peers
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.