Peru and Japan: An Uneasy Relationship

By Berrios, Ruben | Canadian Journal of Latin American & Caribbean Studies, January 2005 | Go to article overview

Peru and Japan: An Uneasy Relationship


Berrios, Ruben, Canadian Journal of Latin American & Caribbean Studies


Abstract. Relations between Peru and Japan go back over 100 years to the time when Japanese first immigrated to Peru seeking work. Japan became an important trading partner and aid donor over the last three decades, and Japanese in Peru prospered, culminating in the election as president in 1990 of Alberto Fujimori, a descendant of Japanese immigrants. Relations between the countries were never easy and at times even became strained, because Japan took a largely pragmatic economic and political approach. The article argues that Japan followed a policy that would be predicted by the realist paradigm for the most part, though at times it had a tendency to invest more, provide more development assistance, and risk more because of the ethnic ties between Japan and Japanese-Peruvians. Those links were not strong enough, in most cases, to overcome decisions made on practical considerations of risk assessment and the Japanese desire to make the most political and economically rewarding decisions.

Resume. Les relations entre le Perou et le Japon remontent a plus de cent ans, lorsque des immigrants japonais sont arrives au Perou en quete de travail. Durant les dernieres trois decennies, le Japon est devenu un partenaire commercial important, ainsi qu'un pourvoyeur d'aide au developpement. Les Peruviens d'origine japonaise ont prospere, si bien que M. Alberto Fujimori, d'ascendance japonaise, a ete elu president en 1990. Les relations entre les deux pays n'ont jamais ete faciles et, a certains moments, elles ont ete traversees par des tensions, notamment du fait que le Japon a adopte une approche surtout pragmatique sur le plan economique et politique. Cet article avance que le Japon a poursuivi une politique que le paradigme realiste aurait pu predire la plupart du temps, bien que parfois le Japon a eu tendance a investir davantage, a octroyer plus d'aide au developpement et a courir des risques plus eleves en raison des liens ethniques avec les Peruviens d'ascendance japonaise. Pourtant, ces liens ne se sont pas averes suffisamment forts, dans la plupart des cas, pour contrer les decisions prises sur la base de considerations pratiques et de l'objectif d'obtenir les resultats politiques et economiques les plus favorables pour le Japon.

**********

The presence of a large community of people of Japanese descent (nikkei) in Peru has been an important nexus for Japanese-Peruvian relations for more than a century. Japan has always placed a premium on its ethnic identity, and the significant number of nikkei in Peru--representing the third-largest Japanese community outside Japan in the world--has led to closer relations, especially since the 1960s. However, Japan's economic pragmatism appears to overshadow its tendency to favour its ethnic allegiance to Japanese-Peruvians.

This article examines the uneasy relationship between the two distant partners, Japan and Peru, focusing on the economic dimension (trade, aid, and investment) as well as on political aspects. I explore the ways in which the ethnic tie between the nations has affected their relations and I examine to what extent the generally pragmatic approach of the Japanese toward foreign relations with Peru has been influenced both by the presence of a population of Japanese descendants in Peru and, most recently, by a reverse migration of a growing number of Peruvian-born workers in Japan triggered by Japan's ethnicity-based immigration policy.

The study chronologically analyzes how these relations have evolved, with emphasis on the last three decades and particularly the 1990-2000 period. Japan is an important trade partner of Peru and one of its major aid donors. Although there have been tense moments over the years, due particularly to Peru's own domestic difficulties, relations remained warm and cordial during most of the study period. The closeness between the two countries reached its peak after the election of Alberto Fujimori. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Peru and Japan: An Uneasy Relationship
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.