Acculturative Stress and Social Support among Korean and Indian Immigrant Adolescents in the United States

By Thomas, Madhavappallil; Choi, Jong Baek | Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, June 2006 | Go to article overview

Acculturative Stress and Social Support among Korean and Indian Immigrant Adolescents in the United States


Thomas, Madhavappallil, Choi, Jong Baek, Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare


This study examined acculturative stress and its relationship with social support among Korean and Indian immigrant adolescents. The data were collected from 165 Korean and Indian adolescents using the Acculturation Scale for Asian American Adolescents and Social Support Scale. Findings show that respondents experience low to moderate level of acculturative stress. Social support activities reduce the level of acculturative stress. Social support from parents is the most important predictive factor in determining the level of acculturative stress. These findings not only contribute to social work education and practice but also increase cultural sensitivity and awareness in working with these populations.

Keywords: Acculturative stress, Social support, Korean adolescents, Indian adolescents

Introduction

Asian Indians and Koreans represent two of the fastest growing immigrant groups in the United States. According to current census data, approximately, 11.7 million Asians live in the U.S. of which 2.2 million are Asian Indians and 1.2 million are Koreans. As these groups become part of the U.S. society, there is a great need to understand how Korean and Indian immigrant families and their children adapt to the U.S. and the problems they encounter in this process. Although most immigrants from both Korea and India adapted to their new environment, several studies show that they also retained their traditional cultural traits, beliefs, values and mores (Dasgupta, 1998; Saran, 1985; Segal, 1991; Sodowsky & Carey, 1987; Hurh & Kim, 1990; Kim, 1997).

The process of acculturation or adapting to the new culture was once perceived as the immersion of immigrants into the new culture. However, current acculturation models focus on the selective and multidimensional nature of the immigrant experience and process. Some researchers argue that immigrants do not simply shed their old or native values for new ones, but rather select, shift and modify to adapt to the new environment (Buriel, 1993; Mendoza, 1989). Despite differing views, there is general consensus among researchers that acculturation is a learning process whereby at least some of the cultural patterns of the host country are adopted (Khairullah & Kairullah, 1999; Choi, 1997; Kang, 1996). Integration and assimilation are closely related constructs identified by researchers in the continuum of acculturation process. According to Berry (2003), integration is valuing one's own culture while at the same time interacting with the host culture. Assimilation, on the other hand, is giving up one's original culture in favor of the host culture.

In the process of learning to adapt to the new culture, individuals, families and groups experience substantial stress which researchers label as acculturative stress. The acculturative stress framework has been conceptualized for immigrants (Thomas, 1995) and refugee populations (Williams and Berry, 1991). It has also been empirically tested among immigrant populations such as Latinos (Chavez et al., 1997; Gil and Vega, 1996; Hovey and King, 1996), Haitians (Chrispin, 1998), and Asians (Choi, 1997; Kang, 1996; Noh and Avison, 1996; Das, 2002; Farver, Bhadha, and Narrang, 2002; Fuligni, 2001; Ghuman, 1997; Khairullah and Kairulla, 1999) in the United States and in Europe (Sam and Berry, 1995). Results of studies of acculturative stress have varied widely in the level of difficulties found in immigrant groups. Early views were that culture contact and change inevitably led to stress (Berry & Annis, 1974). However, the current view is that the level of stress depends on a number of factors such as acculturation attitudes, phase of acculturation, and cultural pluralism in the host society (Krishnan & Berry, 1992). Immigrants who feel marginalized and maintain a separation from both their ethnic culture and the host culture tend to be highly stressed. Two major sources of psychological stress experienced by children from immigrant families are pressure from peers to reject their own cultural identity and values in order to assimilate into the mainstream culture and pressure from parents and other adults to conform to ethnic/cultural norms and traditions (Chrispin, 1998).

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Acculturative Stress and Social Support among Korean and Indian Immigrant Adolescents in the United States
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.