An Empirical Analysis of Gender Differences in Sports Attendance Motives

By Hall, John; O'Mahony, Barry | International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship, July 2006 | Go to article overview

An Empirical Analysis of Gender Differences in Sports Attendance Motives


Hall, John, O'Mahony, Barry, International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship


Abstract

In Australia, male sports attendees outnumber female sports attendees by 25%, yet little research has been conducted into the attendance motives of women. This study undertakes an analysis of 460 respondents using descriptive and multivariate statistics to distinguish the attendance motivations of women and compare them directly to those of male attendees. The findings suggest that female attendance can be influenced through management and promotional strategies.

Keywords

sportscape

Front Room

Back Room

socialisation

fan motivation

strategy

Executive summary

Attendance at sports events in Australia has been growing at a rate of 13% per annum. Approximately 7 million Australians attended a sporting event in 2002 (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2003a, 2003b). However, more Australian males (4 million) than females (3 million) attended at least one sporting event, which equates to 33.3% more male attendance (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2003a). Previous studies reveal that attendance motivations are varied and include economic, geographic and socio-demographic factors as well as accessibility, entertainment, performance, attractiveness of the game and individual preference for the product (Greenstein & Marcum, 1981; Hansen & Gauthier, 1989; Schofield, 1983; Robertson & Pope, 1999; Brokaw, 2000). The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of these and any other emerging factors, and to compare their relative importance to male and female sports attendees. As Fink et al (2002, p.9) assert, "if such differences do in fact exist, then it is critical to identify them in order to develop more effective marketing schemes". This study was designed to bridge this research gap by providing empirical data to assist in the development of strategies to market more effectively to females.

A telephone interview process was used to obtain a sample of 460 respondents comprised of 222 females (48.3%) and 238 males (51.7%). Age, education, occupation and income quotas were applied to ensure a balanced sample.

This study highlights the factors that are important to those attending sporting events and found that the factors that influence male and female attendance are different. The results indicate that all seven constructs presented in this analysis were at least of moderate importance, but that the Entertainment, Back Room and Social considerations were the three most dominant factors for both genders. The importance of these factors differed for genders, however. Emotional arousal at the sporting event and being a 'true fan' was significantly more important for males; for females, Back Room issues, such as parking, seating and stadium accessibility; Front Room issues, such as enjoyment and experiential aspects of a sports event, and Social factors, such as sharing the event with friends and family, were significantly more important.

Introduction

The aim of this study was to investigate the factors that motivate individuals to attend sporting events and to determine if differences are evident between males and females. Previous studies have suggested that attendance motivations are varied and include economic, geographic and socio-demographic factors as well as event characteristics such as accessibility, entertainment, performance, attractiveness of the game and individual preference for the product (Greenstein & Marcum, 1981; Hansen & Gauthier, 1989; Schofield, 1983; Robertson & Pope, 1999; Brokaw, 2000). Event characteristics are of greatest interest to managers, as they are the factors most directly under their control. Understanding differences in the relative importance of these event characteristics would be useful to sporting event organisers in order to increase male attendance while recognising that potential exists to target females and significantly increase female attendance. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

An Empirical Analysis of Gender Differences in Sports Attendance Motives
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.