Developing an Asthma Tool for Schools: The Formative Evaluation of the Michigan Asthma School Packet

By Goei, Ryan; Boyson, Aaron R. et al. | Journal of School Health, August 2006 | Go to article overview
Save to active project

Developing an Asthma Tool for Schools: The Formative Evaluation of the Michigan Asthma School Packet

Goei, Ryan, Boyson, Aaron R., Lyon-Callo, Sarah K., Schott, Cheryl, Wasilevich, Elizabeth Cannarile, Shawn, Journal of School Health


* To examine the influence of formative evaluation and persuasion theory on the development of the Michigan Asthma School Packet (MASP)

* To identify the innovative characteristics of the MASP and their basis in formative findings and theoretical grounding

* To share lessons learned from this formative effort to enhance other intervention planning or design


Michigan has 4475 public schools serving grades K-12. These schools employ 80,991 teachers, 4673 administrators, and 13,309 administrative support staff. A recent Michigan Department of Education survey of the state's school health services found that less than 16% of all schools housed a full-time school health professional and less than 23% of all schools housed either a half- or full-time school health professional. Of the schools selected to receive the MASE 80% are located in counties considered to be part of a Metropolitan Statistical Area.


Michigan has a strong collaboration of public and private organizations called the Asthma Initiative of Michigan (AIM). In February 2000, as part of this initiative, the Michigan Department of Community Health convened 125 asthma experts with knowledge in the areas of clinical care, education, environmental quality, and surveillance from across the state to address asthma prevention and control. Development of the MASP is one of many AIM activities focused on asthma management in school.


The theoretical basis of the MASP is the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM). The EPPM predicts behavior by addressing the underlying motivational mechanisms that prompt health-related behavior change in a variety of contexts? The EPPM states that the target of a health message makes an assessment of threat and efficacy. Threat is a function of "susceptibility," or perceived likelihood that one will be affected, and "severity," or perceived seriousness once affected; efficacy is a function of "response efficacy," or perceived likelihood that the recommended response will avert the threat, and "self-efficacy," or perceived capability that one will be able to carry out the recommended response. Targets perceiving low threat will not attend to the message and make no assessment of efficacy. Targets perceiving high threat but low efficacy will attend to the message but fail to engage in behavior change because they feel incapable or they do not think the recommended response will alleviate the threat. Attention to the message and behavior change are predicted only when targets perceive both high threat and high efficacy. This theory informed the entire intervention including its form, message strategy, design, and scope. Focus on this theory of persuasion seemed warranted because educational print interventions commonly fail to show effects at least in part because their intended targets do not attend to them. (2) In addition, research shows that extensive, theory-driven formative evaluation can lead to more effective interventions. (3)

The formative evaluation plan aimed to determine school employees' perceptions of students' asthma as well as school employees' perceptions of asthma needs and recommended solutions. This plan included a national review of asthma school materials targeting school employees, a survey and interview of school workers, and a survey of youth with asthma and their parents. A team of Michigan asthma experts that included school nurses, pulmonary pediatricians, state health representatives, community asthma program directors, asthma coalition members, and asthma researchers advised the development process with leadership from 2 external communication researchers.

The team reviewed several packets from various states and agencies for content, format, and design. Team members sought to identify effective characteristics of the packets to avoid wasting time and resources by duplicating previously successful tools.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
Loading One moment ...
Project items
Cite this article

Cited article

Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited article

Developing an Asthma Tool for Schools: The Formative Evaluation of the Michigan Asthma School Packet


Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

While we understand printed pages are helpful to our users, this limitation is necessary to help protect our publishers' copyrighted material and prevent its unlawful distribution. We are sorry for any inconvenience.
Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.

Are you sure you want to delete this highlight?