Planning Policy and Agricultural Multifunctionality in Alpine Sillon./Politiques D'amenagement et Muitifonctionnalite Agricole Dans le Sillon Alpin *

By Bertrand, Nathalie; Janin, Claude et al. | Canadian Journal of Regional Science, Spring 2006 | Go to article overview

Planning Policy and Agricultural Multifunctionality in Alpine Sillon./Politiques D'amenagement et Muitifonctionnalite Agricole Dans le Sillon Alpin *


Bertrand, Nathalie, Janin, Claude, Fleury, P., Canadian Journal of Regional Science


Abstract

The Sillon Alpin is an attractive and dynamic area in the Rhone-Alpes region. Due to important economic and demographic growth, but also to topographic constraints related to the mountain environment, the increasing land consumption by urbanization poses a challenge for its sustainable development and spatial coherence. This has consequences for the attractivity and future economic competitiveness of the Sillon and calls for some form of regulation. Agriculture has been experiencing important challenges in relation to its production function, but has found new functions in the context of land management processes which raise the issues of multifunctionality of agricultural land. A comparative analysis of two city regions in the Sillon Alpin--Chambery and Grenoble--has permitted us to identify the evolution of land management issues from the 1970s (SDAU) to the more recent period (SCOT), and the place of agriculture in such processes. In conclusion, the paper debates the relevance of the concept of multifunctionality in order to better understand the place of agriculture today in land planning.

Resume

Le Sillon Alpin est au sein de la region Rhone-Alpes un espace attractif et dynamique. Du fait d'une croissance economique et demographique fortes, mais aussi des fortes contraintes du relief montagneux la consommation croissante de l'espace par l'urbanisation pose a terme un probleme de durabilite du developpement et de cohesion spatiale : engorgement des infrastructures de transport, continuite de l'urbanisation en fond de vallee, degradation du cadre vie, rarefaction et cherte du foncier tant agricole que constructible. Ces tendances lourdes ont des consequences sur l'attractivite et la competitivite economique futures du Sillon Alpin. Ceci appelle a une reflexion sur la consommation de l'espace et sur les regulations a mettre en oeuvre pour le maintien d'une attractivite des territoires. Les questions spatiales qui emergent sont liees au maintien et a la gestion des espaces residentiels ou recreatifs, des reserves foncieres, des coupures vertes. Face aux enjeux de gestion et de maintien d'espaces ouverts, l'activite agricole, bien que remise en cause dans sa finalite economique, retrouve des justifications <> dans le cadre des procedures d'amenagement.

La question que nous discutons dans cet article est d'analyser en quoi l'agriculture devient un element incontournable des procedures d'amenagement et comment la multifonctionnalite agricole est interrogee ? Pour cela nous developpons notre argument en deux temps. L'analyse comparee des projets d'amenagement de deux aires urbaines du sillon alpin, Chambery et Grenoble, permettra tout d'abord de saisir les evolutions des enjeux d'amenagement des annees 1970, a l'epoque des SDAU, a aujourd'hui dans les SCOT. Elle conduira a cerner les enjeux spatiaux qui emergent et en quoi l'agriculture est concernee. Nous nous interessons ensuite aux facteurs explicatifs des evolutions recentes des modalites de prise en compte de l'activite agricole au regard de la notion de multifonctionnalite agricole. Nous concluons enfin par une discussion sur la pertinence de ce concept pour comprendre la place de l'agriculture dans l'amenagement.

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Le Sillon Alpin constitue au sein de la region Rhone-Alpes un espace attractif et dynamique tant du point de vue economique qu'en termes de population : l'emploi est fortement marque par les activites de haute technologie (informatique, composants electroniques, automatisme), la densite d'habitants approche le double de la moyenne francaise (en 1999, la densite etait de 178 habitants par [km.sup.2] pour 95 en France). Le maillage urbain est tres important. Le sillon alpin, constitue de 13 aires urbaines (1) couvrant 88 % de sa superficie, tend a une totale conurbation : d'une part, le phenomene d'etalement urbain s'accentue sous l'effet d'une croissance demographique qui se concentre en peripherie des poles urbains, dans les communes periurbaines dont la population a augmente de 17 % entre 1990 et 1999 contre + 6,1% dans les poles urbains; (2) d'autre part, le relief montagneux du Sillon Alpin constitue une contrainte spatiale qui exacerbe la concurrence entre les usages de l'espace.

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