Cuneiform Inscriptions Made Visible on Bronze Plates from the Upper Anzaf Fortress, Turkey

By Tugrul, A. Beril; Belli, Oktay | Antiquity, September 1994 | Go to article overview

Cuneiform Inscriptions Made Visible on Bronze Plates from the Upper Anzaf Fortress, Turkey


Tugrul, A. Beril, Belli, Oktay, Antiquity


X-ray study of bronze plates from a fortress of the 1st millennium BC reveals cuneiform inscriptions on metal surfaces that are now wholly hidden by corrosion.

The Anzaf fortresses and the bronze hoard

The two Anzaf fortresses of the Urartu period are located in east Anatolia, near the Van lake. The older is the Lower Anzaf Fortress, constructed by King Ispuini (830-810 BC); the younger and larger Upper Anzaf Fortress was constructed on a higher hill 600 m to the south.

The Upper Anzaf Fortress is 11 km northwest of the Urartu capital Tuspa (today Van) in eastern Anatolia, near the modern highway and railway from Van to Iran; with its magnificent appearance, the Upper Fortress is considered to have been constructed for economic and military aims.

The excavation of the Upper Fortress by Belli's team is the only official excavation of the Urartu period in Turkey (Belli 1992). The temple in the Fortress is the oldest of the Urartu period in eastern Anatolia.

During the 1991 excavation, a big bronze hoard was found in the vicinity of the west gate of the temple precinct. It consists of various bronze fragments, parts, plates and weapons, separated by fire into hundreds of pieces (Tugrul & Belli 1992).

Cleaning and conservation have revealed that some fragments are ornamented. On some fragments, the figures are easily perceived; on others, more affected by the fire, they have to be traced closely. In this study, some of the bronze plates are investigated by radiography.

The study and the inscriptions

As usual, radiography was used to determine the inner structure of the matter by penetrating radiation (Halmshaw 1971; Mix 1987); for this study X-rays were used. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Cuneiform Inscriptions Made Visible on Bronze Plates from the Upper Anzaf Fortress, Turkey
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.