A Cross-Disability Analysis of Programming Needs for Athletes with Disabilities

By Ferrara, Michael S.; Dattilo, John et al. | Palaestra, Fall 1994 | Go to article overview

A Cross-Disability Analysis of Programming Needs for Athletes with Disabilities


Ferrara, Michael S., Dattilo, John, Dattilo, Anne M., Palaestra


Active participation in sport is generally associated with positive

outcomes for athletes with disabilities

(Dummer, Ewing, Habeck, & Overton, 1987). Many investigations have focused on physiological and biomedical effects of sport participation. For example, Kobberling, Jankowski, and Leger (1989) explored the energy cost of running for 30 adolescents who were blind. In another example, Coutts and Strogryn (1987) examined aerobic and anaerobic capacities of six track athletes who used wheelchairs. Wells and Hooker (1990) concluded from a review of literature that athletic profiles of persons with spinal cord injuries had focused on body composition, pulmonary function, cardiovascular efficiency, muscular strength and endurance, and anaerobic power related to exercise. Further, Smith (1993) reported cardiovascular health, improved health maintenance, coordination, flexibility, weight control, and muscular strength were all physiological benefits of sport and physical activity for people with physical disabilities.

Researchers have begun to move beyond examining physiological responses to training, and now explore other factors involved in participation. For example, several researchers (Coyle, Kinney, & Shank, 1991; Patrick, 1986; Sherrill, Hinson, Gench, Kennedy, & Low, 1990; Smith, 1993) reported athletic participation resulted in psychological benefits, including reduced depression and anxiety, perceived competence, increased self-efficacy and self-confidence, self-concept, increased acceptance of disability, and general well being. In addition, Kleiber, Ashton-Shaeffer, Malik, Lee, and Hood (1990) concluded involvement in competitive sports for people with disabilities seemed to have an impact on improving social interactions at home, acquiring friends, and improving physical coordination, strength, endurance, and self-confidence.

Since many variables influence participation for athletes with disabilities, researchers have begun to study training patterns of people with disabilities. For example, Hedrick, Morse, and Figoni (1988) analyzed competitive experiences and training practices of 100 adult athletes who were blind. More recently, Watanable, Cooper, Vosse, Baldini, and Robertson (1992) and Davis, Ferrara, and Nelson (1993) surveyed athletes attending a training camp for elite athletes with disabilities in regards to their training practices.

Although much information has been obtained, the aforementioned investigations of athletes with disabilities and other studies (Ferrara & Davis, 1990; Curtis & Dillion (1985) had limited sample sizes, and /or analyzed only one disabling condition at a time. Studies reporting comparisons among athletes with disabilities are needed.

In response to recommendations by DePauw (1988) to examine crossdisability research designed to identify similarities and differences among athletes, this study was initiated to develop a profile of practices and desires of various athletes with disabilities. Specifically, this study examined nutritional patterns, educational experiences, and perceived barriers to participation for athletes with cerebral palsy, athletes who used wheelchairs, and athletes who had visual impairments. Based on this information, educational strategies can be designed and implemented.

Methods

Subjects

Participants from national games of three Disabled Sports Organizations served as the population. The total number of participants registering for all of these competitions was 789. Overall, a total of 434 subjects participated in the project; eight surveys were deemed incomplete and were not included in final tabulations. There were 87 subjects from Wheelchair Sports, USA (formerly NWAA) (71 male, 16 female), 122 subjects from the United States Association for Blind Athletes (USABA) (81 male, 41 female), and 217 subjects from the United States Cerebral Palsy Athletic Association (USCPAA) (152 male, 65 female). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

A Cross-Disability Analysis of Programming Needs for Athletes with Disabilities
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.