Meeting Basic Consumption Needs: A Joint Examination of Food and Medical Care

By Nielsen, Robert B.; Garasky, Steve | Consumer Interests Annual, Annual 2007 | Go to article overview

Meeting Basic Consumption Needs: A Joint Examination of Food and Medical Care


Nielsen, Robert B., Garasky, Steve, Consumer Interests Annual


Over one-in-ten U.S. households are food insecure. That is, these households include members who do not always have access to enough food for active, healthy living because their household lacks money or other resources for food. Children (18.2%) are far more likely than adults (10.8%) to be in households suffering from food insecurity (Nord, Andrews & Carlson, 2005). At the same time, approximately 46 million Americans, or 16% of the population, are without health insurance (DeNavas-Walt, Proctor & Lee, 2006). Research suggests that spells without insurance are usually relatively short in duration, but can be relatively frequent (Nelson, 2003). Children are most likely to experience repeated spells without health insurance, whereas adults age 55-64 experience the most frequent insurance coverage transitions. In addition, health care costs continue to increase both in nominal amount and as a share of household expenditures (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2007). One of the largest components of out of pocket medical expenditures, prescription drugs, is driving much of the increase in out of pocket expenditures (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2006; U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2007). Despite an extensive network of private and public food assistance programs and public health insurance options, these statistics demonstrate that it is difficult for millions of families to meet these basic needs. There is some evidence that family resource allocation decisions involve tradeoffs between basic needs (Long 2003; Sharpe, Fan & Hong, 2001), but there is little research that moves beyond cross-sectional estimates to examine family-level economic outcomes associated with the acquisition of food and medical care over time.

Data and Analyses

This study of the relationship between health insurance, medical expenditures and food insecurity examined panel data from the 2001 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). The SIPP is a nationally representative survey of the non-institutionalized United States population conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. The three-year 2001 panel collects a "core" set of questions that are collected from respondents every four months. The SIPP also consists of "topical" modules for questions that are not asked each wave. The timing and frequency of the topical modules varies, as does the duration of the reference period to which the questions refer. The data used here were collected from January, 2003 to December, 2003 (waves 7, 8, and 9) and, depending on the rotation group of the respondent, refer to a continuous 12 months that began as early as October 2002 and ended as late as December, 2003. It was from this 12-month period that health insurance status, employment, sociodemographic information, and family composition data were drawn. The analytic sample included 49,989 people age 0 to 87 who were members of 16,236 families in 2003. When weighted, this sample represented 170.3 million people who were members of 70.8 million families.

The multivariate analyses focused on the relationship between food insecurity and medical out of pocket expenditures while explicitly controlling for the potential endogeneity of the two variables. Specifically, a two stage probit least squares estimation (2SPLS) that simultaneously fit the probit and least squares equations was used. This approach allowed us to account for the joint decision making made by households about food and medical expenditures. A 2SPLS estimation, rather than single-equation estimation methods, allowed food insecurity status to be included among the explanatory variables in the medical out of pocket expenditure equation, and medical out of pocket expenditures to help explain food insecurity.

Results and Discussion

The results from this nationally-representative sample of families found no evidence that food and medical expenditures crowd out one another. That is, when considering the economic circumstances of families, there was little evidence that food and medical expenditures were an either/or decision for families. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Meeting Basic Consumption Needs: A Joint Examination of Food and Medical Care
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.