The Language of "Sacrifice" in the Buildup to War: A Feminist Rhetorical and Theological Analysis

By Denton-Borhaug, Kelly | Journal of Religion and Popular Culture, Spring 2007 | Go to article overview

The Language of "Sacrifice" in the Buildup to War: A Feminist Rhetorical and Theological Analysis


Denton-Borhaug, Kelly, Journal of Religion and Popular Culture


Kelly Denton-Borhaug Moravian College, Bethlehem, PA

Abstract

This article investigates the language of "sacrifice" used in official U.S. government communications to build up support for the Iraq war in the American public. Drawing on the rhetorical analysis of victimage rhetoric and framing, and feminist theological criticisms of Christian atonement metaphors in popular American culture, I argue that in the wake of 9/11, the familiar religious connotations of sacrificial language created a frame with deep emotional resonance that encouraged quietistic support for war, manipulated self-sacrificial identity inculcation in the American military, and enabled a comforting interpretation in the face of what seemed an incredible event. My analysis will demonstrate the importance of inclusion of theological inquiry as a part of a broad multi-disciplinary approach to adequately understand the dynamics of the present political and cultural moment.

Victimage Rhetoric, Framing, and the Language of Sacrifice

[1] Over fifteen years ago, biblical theologian Elsa Tamez articulated a critique of the devastating consequences of the discourse of "sacrifice" within neoliberal economic systems of Latin America. In her analysis, Tamez demonstrated that popular Christian understanding and devotional language of sacrifice was manipulated in the economic rhetoric of the Latin American context to manufacture a mystification of economic demands that were placed on the poorest of the poor, including austerity measures often imposed by global bodies such as the IMF to service foreign debt. [1] According to Tamez, the result was an economic reality in which ever-larger sectors of humanity increasingly were excluded from access to having basic needs met; most perversely, sacrificial language assigned responsibility for the cost of the economic system to those who did not have the means for participation in the market economy and were most injured by it.

[2] Given the powerful resurgence of the language of sacrifice in the U.S. in the period since 9/11 and the inauguration of the "war on terror," Tamez's analysis takes on renewed significance and is well worth reexamination. This article explores just these dynamics of sacrificial language in the wake of 9/11. Specifically, I argue that U.S. political rhetoric emphasizing familiar religious elements of sacrificial language was intentionally utilized to create a frame with deep emotional resonance, a frame that encouraged quietistic support for war, manipulated self-sacrificial identity inculcation in the American military, and enabled a comforting interpretation in the face of what seemed an incredible event. Awareness of this manipulation underscores the reality of ambiguity residing in the communicative dynamic of primary religious symbols and metaphors themselves such as "sacrifice." In the case of our own post-9/11 period, sacrificial language proved all too vulnerable to misuse and even abuse in the service of political (and commercial/economic) goals.

[3] The discourse of sacrifice was pushed to the forefront of political discourse in the United States following the attack on the Trade Towers to operate as a leitmotif of the Bush administration. For instance, in remarks addressing military families in Idaho, August 2005, the president said, "A time of war is a time of sacrifice, and a heavy burden falls on our military families . . . And America appreciates the service and the sacrifice of the military families." [2] He continued a bit later in his speech, "In this time of call-ups and alerts and mobilizations and deployments, your employers are standing behind you, and so is your government. The country owes you something in return for your sacrifice."

[4] Bush's stump speeches on the campaign trail before his re-election regularly featured sacrificial discourse:

The American spirit of sacrifice and service and compassion and love is alive and strong and therefore, I boldly predict that out of the evil done to America will not only come a more peaceful world, but out of the evil done to America will be a more compassionate America, where the great hope of this country, the great vibrancy of the American Dream, will be alive and well in every corner, in every neighborhood here in America. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

The Language of "Sacrifice" in the Buildup to War: A Feminist Rhetorical and Theological Analysis
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.