A Comparison of Grip Strength and Selected Psychomotor Performance Measures in Healthy and Frail Elderly Females

By Meyer, Rhonda D.; Goggin, Noreen L. et al. | Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, March 1995 | Go to article overview

A Comparison of Grip Strength and Selected Psychomotor Performance Measures in Healthy and Frail Elderly Females


Meyer, Rhonda D., Goggin, Noreen L., Jackson, Allen W., Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport


In 1991, an estimated 31.8 million elderly adults resided in the United States, including 19.0 million elderly women and 12.8 million elderly men (American Association of Retired Persons, 1992). In addition, by the year 2030, more than 22% of all Americans will be 65 or older. Thus, it is critically important to understand the biological, psychological, and behavioral changes that occur with increasing age, especially in women. Motor control research on older women is warranted due to the higher ratio of females to males in this age group and the high risk of limiting conditions involving functional ability, such as osteoporosis and arthritis (Horton, 1992). Studies which focus on exercise, strength, and movement control are likely to contribute to our understanding of health behaviors and activity patterns of older women (Woods, 1993).

Of particular concern to kinesiologists and health professionals is the risk of accidental injury associated with age and psychomotor declines. With advanced age comes the increased risk of disabling conditions and limitations in movement. For example, an older adult is likely to suffer a damaging fall by the time he or she reaches 80-85 years of age (Fiatarone & Evans, 1993; Schultz, 1992; Stelmach & Worringham, 1985; Woollacott, 1993).

In the last few years, interest has emerged which examines the relationship between musculoskeletal strength and functional ability in older adults. Musculoskeletal strength has been shown to be an important component of functional ability and is a major cause of limited mobility and activity, especially for women (Horton, 1992). Spirduso and MacRae (1990) stated,

Much research needs to be done to document and understand human strength and power capabilities in the older decades. It would be extremely useful to know the contribution that different levels of muscle strength and power might make toward the prevention of injuries, accidents, and fatalities in the very old. (p. 196)

In support of Spirduso and MacRae's (1990) position, several studies have demonstrated that one of the specific responses to strength training or advantages of greater musculoskeletal strength is superior recruitment and control of motor units (Moritani & deVries, 1979; Sale, 1987, 1988). Specifically, Moritani and deVries (1980) demonstrated that enhanced motor unit recruitment and control was important in strength improvements as a result of resistance training. Thus, stronger or strength-trained older individuals are more likely to show improved gross and fine motor movements.

As evidence of this relationship, Fiatarone et al. (1990) conducted a study which examined the relationship between strength and gross motor movements. Among the 20 frail male and female subjects (M age = 90 years), strength gains were 174% following training. An improvement in strength was associated with improvements in gross motor movements. Bassey et al. (1992) were interested in determining whether strength in frail elderly subjects was correlated with functional, gross motor performance activities such as rising from a chair and walking up stairs. Subjects in this study were 26 frail, institutionalized men and women who had many chronic health conditions. Significant correlations were found between leg extensor power and all functional performance measures. Bassey et al. concluded that leg power may be a useful measure in determining functional ability in a frail population of elderly adults.

Although Fiatarone et al. (1990) and Bassey et al. (1992) demonstrated that strength was important to gross motor movements, little information regarding the quality or efficiency of those improved movements was provided (Rosenbaum, 1991). One way to assess movement quality or efficiency is to utilize kinematics to examine movement characteristics. Detailed kinematic analyses may enhance understanding the control processes which are involved in movement production (Annett, 1988). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

A Comparison of Grip Strength and Selected Psychomotor Performance Measures in Healthy and Frail Elderly Females
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.