An Epidemiologic Analysis of Co-Occurring Alcohol and Tobacco Use and Disorders: Findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

By Falk, Daniel E.; Yi, Hsiao-ye et al. | Alcohol Research, Fall 2006 | Go to article overview

An Epidemiologic Analysis of Co-Occurring Alcohol and Tobacco Use and Disorders: Findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions


Falk, Daniel E., Yi, Hsiao-ye, Hiller-Sturmhofel, Susanne, Alcohol Research


The 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) sought to determine the prevalence of drinking, smoking, and associated disorders in the general population. This survey, which includes a large representative sample of the adult population of the United States, found that drinking rates were highest among young adults and declined with increasing age. Rates of smoking and co-use of alcohol and tobacco were highest among the youngest respondents and declined thereafter. Similar patterns existed for the presence of alcohol use disorders (AUDs), nicotine dependence, and comorbidity between AUDs and nicotine dependence. Among ethnic/racial groups evaluated, Whites were most likely to drink and Native Americans/Alaskan Natives were most likely to smoke and to have an AUD, nicotine dependence, or comorbid AUD and nicotine dependence. Finally, the rates of tobacco use, daily tobacco use, and nicotine dependence increased with increasing levels of alcohol consumption and the presence of an AUD. These findings have important implications for the development of prevention and intervention approaches. KEY WORDS: Age differences; epidemiology; alcohol and other drug use disorders (AODD); racial differences; tobacco; nicotine; comorbidity; ethnic differences; gender differences

**********

Numerous studies have demonstrated that excessive alcohol consumption and tobacco use are independently associated with a plethora of health-related, social, and economic adverse consequences for the consumers of these legal substances as well as for society at large (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] 2004, 2005a). Some of these detrimental effects can be exacerbated in people who use and abuse both substances. For example, the risk of certain cancers is greater for people who drink and smoke than for people who use only one of these substances (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism [NIAAA] 1998a). To prevent the harmful interaction of alcohol and tobacco use and ameliorate its impact on the individual and society, it is important to understand the mechanisms contributing to the use and abuse of both substances. Many studies into these mechanisms have identified brain molecules, such as neurotransmitters and nicotinic receptors, that interact with alcohol and/or nicotine and which mediate the effects of these substances on the brain. Similar analyses also have identified mechanisms that mediate sensitivity to alcohol and/or nicotine, as well as the rewarding properties of the two drugs. (For more information on these mechanisms, see the articles by Funk and colleagues, Davis and de Fiebre, and Grucza and Bierut in this issue.)

Another large area of research is concerned with how the use of or dependence on one of these substances affects the treatment outcome for dependence on the other substance. For example, studies have begun to address the following questions: Are alcohol-dependent patients who are also nicotine dependent less likely to have successful alcoholism treatment outcomes than those patients who are not nicotine dependent? Should both dependencies be treated at the same time or consecutively? And are special treatment approaches needed for patients who are dependent on both rather than just one substance? This research already has yielded valuable insights. (For more information, see the articles by Foulds and colleagues, Gulliver and colleagues, Ziedonis and colleagues, and Kodl and colleagues in this issue.)

Although all of these avenues of research are of the utmost importance, it is equally critical to obtain a solid understanding of the scope of the problem. Thus, it is important to know the rates of alcohol and tobacco use and co-use in the general population and whether certain demographic subgroups are particularly at risk of using both alcohol and tobacco or being dependent on both substances. Studies of this nature are rare in the literature. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

An Epidemiologic Analysis of Co-Occurring Alcohol and Tobacco Use and Disorders: Findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.