A Baseline Assessment of U.S. Naval Food Facilities Using the Food Code's New Risk-Based Inspection Program

By Boyd, Derek | Journal of Environmental Health, November 2007 | Go to article overview

A Baseline Assessment of U.S. Naval Food Facilities Using the Food Code's New Risk-Based Inspection Program


Boyd, Derek, Journal of Environmental Health


When you can measure what you are talking about and express it in
numbers, you know something about it.
--Lord William Thomson Kelvin (1824-1907)

Introduction

Quantifiable Void in Assessing the Effectiveness of Food Safety Initiatives

Food safety has been a major concern over the last century. The United States is considered to have the safest food in the world, but it is also home to some of the largest foodborne outbreaks and recalls in history (Bryan, 2002). For the past two decades, there has been concern over emerging diseases, changes in pathogens, increased population, and globalization of the food supply (Altekruse, Cohen, & Swerdlow, 1997).

The food industry is a big business, comprising 12.2 million employees and a projected revenue of $476 billion in 2005 (National Restaurant Association [NRA], 2005). Nearly half of the adults in the United States dine in food service facilities every day (NRA, 2005). These facilities account for more than 40 percent of the foodborne-disease outbreaks (two or more cases) reported to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) from 1993 to 1997 (Olsen, Mackinon, Goulding, Bean, & Slutsker, 2000).

CDC has identified specific risk factors that contribute to these outbreaks (Bean, Goulding, Lao, & Angulo, 1996). Restaurant inspections that focus on these factors are intended to prevent outbreaks of foodborne illness (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [DHHS], 2001). There is debate, however, as to the effectiveness of these inspections (Bryan, 2002).

Today there are 35 food safety laws and a dozen federal agencies responsible for regulating them (Nestle, 2003). Until recently, however, there has been no way for these agencies to accurately measure the effectiveness of this system. The military is no exception. Currently there is no standard practice by which Navy food safety personnel can determine the success of their prevention efforts.

In the late 1990s, the FDA developed a national study to confront this issue in retail facilities. The immediate goal was to identify urgent priorities in food safety procedures and practices that have the potential to cause foodborne illness. The long-term aim was to evaluate trends and document the measurement of changes over time. FDA has charged other regulatory agencies to do the same and compare their results with those of the FDA.

Report of the FDA Retail Food Program Database of Foodborne Illness Risk Factors

In 1993, the government tasked federal agencies with developing a way to express the goal of food safety in measurable form (Office of Management and Budget, 1993). Foodborne-illness morbidity and mortality data were not an ideal performance indicator because of the inherent limit of underreporting. As an alternative methodology, the FDA Retail Food Program Database of Foodborne Illness Risk Factors initiative, began in 1997. For the first time, a national baseline on the occurrence of foodborne-illness risk factors had been designed (FDA Retail Food Program Steering Committee, 2000).

The overall goal of the project was to meet the Food Safety Objective of a 25 percent reduction in the occurrence of these risk factors as set forth in Healthy People 2010 (DHHS, 2000). For an accurate appraisal, the data were to be collected at five-year intervals, with the final collection period in 2008 (FDA Retail Food Program Steering Committee, 2000). The second FDA data collection report was published in 2004.

On the basis of the 1988-1992 surveillance summaries, FDA's National Retail Steering Committee (Steering Committee) specifically chose the following five foodborne-illness risk factors as their performance indicators:

* unsafe sources,

* inadequate cooking,

* improper holding temperatures,

* contaminated equipment, and

* poor personal hygiene.

The FDA regional retail food specialists collected data during site visits at over 900 establishments representing nine distinct facility types, focusing both on general and on highly susceptible populations:

* in institutional food service:

-- hospitals,

-- nursing homes, and

-- elementary schools;

* in restaurants:

-- fast-food restaurants and

-- full-service restaurants;

* in retail food stores:

-- deli operations,

-- meat and poultry departments,

-- seafood departments, and

-- produce departments. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

A Baseline Assessment of U.S. Naval Food Facilities Using the Food Code's New Risk-Based Inspection Program
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.