Block Scheduling in Secondary Physical Education: East Compared to West Coast United States of America

By Hynes-Hunter, Joanne Margaret; Avery, Sarah | Physical Educator, Winter 2007 | Go to article overview

Block Scheduling in Secondary Physical Education: East Compared to West Coast United States of America


Hynes-Hunter, Joanne Margaret, Avery, Sarah, Physical Educator


Abstract

This study presents findings that investigated the effects of block scheduling (90-120 minute periods) on sixth-to-twelfth grade students attending secondary physical education classes located in the northeast and west-coast United States. Quantitative methods of data collection were utilized. Results found students spent more time "waiting" and in "management" and less time in "activity." Furthermore, although the proportion of appropriate to inappropriate responses to tasks was in the right range, the number of opportunities to respond was low. Therefore, even though it seems there are advantages in adopting block scheduling, including the provision of a larger block of time to carry out state and national learning standards, this study also raises several questions concerning it's effectiveness. Consequently, suggestions that will help improve teaching strategies of teachers, including how to keep the students involved in active learning activities throughout the 90-minute class period, are discussed.

**********

Numerous middle and high school physical education programs in the United States are based on the traditional seven-to-nine, 45-50 minutes period school days. Researchers have found that students spent at least 25 percent of the traditional 45-minute physical education period dressing and waiting (Claxton and Bryant, 1996). Moreover, the physical educator found it difficult to teach sport concepts, improve fitness and sport skills, cultivate a sense of fair play, and develop a lifetime commitment to physical activity (Siedentop, et.al., 1994).

Therefore, secondary administrators are looking at changing the traditional arrangement of the school day in order to improve teaching and learning at the middle and high school level. Block scheduling offers a new and more efficient way to organize the school day (Canady and Rettig, 1995a, 1995b; Edwards, 1995; Rettig and Canady, 1996). It allows students to spend greater periods of time (e.g. 90-120 minutes) concentrating on fewer subjects during any one day. All blocks can be the same length, or some blocks may be longer than others (Table 1).

The block schedule, in its simplest form, requires each student to take the same four courses every day for an entire semester and then switch to four new courses the next semester. In another variation of this schedule, courses are taught on alternative days. That is, a student might enroll in English, Physical Education, History and Foreign Language courses on Monday's, Wednesday's, and Friday's, and Math, Music, Science and Health courses on Tuesday's and Thursday's.

Research concerning block scheduling indicates that the system has many advantages over traditional scheduling. For example, a concentrated class time allows teachers to focus on enriched content (Bukowski and Stinson, 2000; Staunton, 1997). Additionally, Bukowski and Stinson (2000) reported teachers felt rushed when planning during the traditional 50-minute planning period, especially when they were trying to accomplish any major project or task. Block scheduling allows for larger blocks of uninterrupted planning time. Researchers have also found students on a block schedule appear to have more opportunities to participate in in-class discussions (Thomas and O'Connell, 1997).

Unfortunately, research on the effects of block scheduling on physical education has been neglected. In one of the few articles that considers the implications for block scheduling in physical education, professionals are urged to "... use extensive networking because the professional literature and undergraduate/graduate teacher preparation programs have yet to adequately provide the information needed by practitioners," (NYSAHPERED Link, 1996). Bryant and Claxton began researching the effects of block scheduling in physical education in 1996. Bukowski and Stinson continued the research in 2000. However, their research was limited to the South-East and Mid-West school districts in the United States. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Block Scheduling in Secondary Physical Education: East Compared to West Coast United States of America
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.