Alumni Donations and Colleges' Development Expenditures: Does Spending Matter?

By Harrison, Willian B.; Mitchell, Shannon K. et al. | The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, October 1995 | Go to article overview

Alumni Donations and Colleges' Development Expenditures: Does Spending Matter?


Harrison, Willian B., Mitchell, Shannon K., Peterson, Steven P., The American Journal of Economics and Sociology


I

Introduction: The Unexplored Market for Higher Education Gifts

The newly minted graduate has scarcely had time to frame the new diploma before the first letter of solicitation arrives from the alumni office.(1) In the ensuing years, a substantial percentage of alumni will contribute to their alma maters. But why? This is the question we explore in this paper.

Casual observers usually assume that, in the spirit of altruism, alumni give because their schools need the money. Reporting to the Council for Aid to Education (CAE) for the academic year 1990-91, 1,046 schools reported aggregate giving that accounted for seven percent of the educational and general expenses of higher education. Recently, schools have found that cuts in public support for higher education have made that seven percent critically important (Demner, 1995; Hsu and Tousignant, 1995; Walters, 1995).

No doubt this need plays a part in many donations and may be the only motivation for some. Nevertheless, we believe altruism is not the dominant factor, and the ways in which vast sums are spent by colleges for fund-raising campaigns suggests that they do not think it is, either. Alumni offices know their graduates generally need to be motivated. While some give because of what the college did for them in the past, others may give because of what they perceive the college will do for them now, or in the future. Donors seem to want the psychic satisfaction that accompanies recognition from their former school - from appearing in a list of names in the alumni bulletin, to receiving free football tickets, to having a scholarship or building named after them.

Giving to higher education involves a mutual satisfaction of needs. We propose a market structure in which alumni supply donations and, in return, colleges provide recognition to donors. The price in this exchange is the developmental cost to the college of raising a dollar of donations, and this cost captures the benefits rendered to donors.

The paper proceeds as follows. Section II reviews related work. Section III develops an exchange model to explain giving to higher education. Section IV describes the data and the econometric testing of the model. While the developmental costs were reported to and summarized by the Council for Advancement and Support of Education (CASE) in 1990, only central tendency data was published. We have been able to obtain some of the original data. To our knowledge, no prior statistical analysis of giving to higher education has incorporated the costs of fund raising, alumni relations or other constituent relations.

Section V provides our findings. Briefly, we find that the greatest influence on alumni giving is expenditures on alumni relations. Two variables characterizing the student body significantly affect alumni giving: the percent which are "Greek", positively; and the percent which are part-time, negatively. A school's NCAA division, whether it is public or private, or whether it is primarily a research/doctoral institution do not seem to affect alumni giving. The level of bequests, or planned giving, positively affects giving, but the size of a school's endowment has no significant effect.

The last part of the study provides some implications for college presidents and development officers and summarizes our findings.

II

The State of the Literature

Not surprisingly, the academic literature linking economic behavior to donations to higher education is sparse, since schools compete for donors. Moreover, until recently there has not been any data on the costs of college development activities designed to procure donations. In consequence, studies are cited that for the most part, are only peripherally related to our work.

Economists often explain philanthropy in terms of an "interdependent utility thesis." This holds that a prospective donor's utility is influenced directly by the utility of others. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Alumni Donations and Colleges' Development Expenditures: Does Spending Matter?
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.