Democratic Teacher Beliefs According to the Teacher's Gender and Locus of Control

By Kesici, Sahin | Journal of Instructional Psychology, March 2008 | Go to article overview

Democratic Teacher Beliefs According to the Teacher's Gender and Locus of Control


Kesici, Sahin, Journal of Instructional Psychology


This study explored the variations in democratic beliefs among teachers based on gender and locus of control. The study groups comprised of 286 teachers. The results demonstrated that the level of adherence to democratic beliefs on the part of female teachers was significantly higher than those of male teachers, especially in terms of equality and justice. This study found that teachers' gender has an effect on their democratic beliefs and this effect was found statistically low for equality, very low for freedom, average for justice, and low for the overall dimensions. Observance of democratic values was found to be significantly higher for teachers with internal locus of control than for those with external locus of control in terms of freedom. And, in terms of locus of control, teachers' democratic belief was found statistically low for equality, average for independence, low for justice, and average for the overall dimensions.

Keywords: Democratic Teacher Beliefs, Gender, Locus of Control

**********

If we are to have a society that values democratic ideals, such as equality, freedom and justice, we need to educate individuals within that society in a democratic milieu. Among all others, the responsibility lies with teachers who have an appreciation for democracy to nurture individuals in the society and have been educated in a democratic milieu. To this end, teachers need to have acquired the basic behavioral patterns that comply with those adopted by the society. Teachers' acquisition of certain personality traits develops through social learning. The social learning approach involves personal and environmental aspects, and the interaction between these two. Bandura (1986) points out that individuals would always be in a constant state of change towards harmony, regardless of the transient effects left on them if their behavior was determined by external rewards and punishments. And, this idea indicates that behavioral changes are not determined solely by individual factors. The condition for social learning lies in individuals' realization that other people's behaviors and the outcomes of these behaviors are rewarded and punished. In this way, Bandura (1977) defines character as the interaction of personal variables such as behavior, environment, and perception. And, Banduras (1997) further comments on the significance of the interaction by saying that mutual interaction between increases ambiguity within society and diversification encourages individuals to develop their potentials and gives them a chance to select, change, or shape their surroundings.

In this process of interaction, personality traits such as gender and locus of control help better understand the effects of self awareness and environmental factors on behaviour (Carlson et al., 2000). Through males and females, individuals learn about gender-appropriate belief patterns, personal preferences, abilities, personality traits and ego (Wade & Tavris, 1990). By means of social learning, individuals learn about gender-related stereo types, gender roles, behaviors, and attitudes (Uzzel & Natalie, 2006). According to cultural belief patterns, males are more competent, independent, decisive, and rational. On the contrary, females are less competent, competitive, ambitious, independent, and active (Broverman et al., 1972). When interviewed on gender-related beliefs and roles, in their responses college students attributed the following abilities to males--athletically and mechanically gifted, good at grasping economics, good observers and possess intellectual excellence, a good grasp of science, theoretical understanding, common sense, expertise, and professional skills. For females they attributed these qualifies--possess social skills, an understanding of interpersonal relationship, appreciation for art, domestic skills, satire appreciation, and physical appearance (Center 1971 quarters: Bruess & Greenberg 2004)

Related to an individual's personal qualities, the locus of control is a personality trait developed through social learning. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Democratic Teacher Beliefs According to the Teacher's Gender and Locus of Control
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.